1921
Volume 75, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Although Q fever is considered enzootic in the United States, surveillance for human Q fever has been historically limited. From 1978 through 1999, 436 cases (average = 20 per year) of human Q fever were reported. After Q fever became nationally reportable in 1999, 255 human Q fever cases (average = 51 per year) were reported with illness onset during 2000 through 2004. The median age of cases was 51 years, and most cases were male (77%). The average annual incidence of Q fever was 0.28 cases per million persons, and was highest in persons 50–59 years of age (0.39 cases per million). State-specific incidence ranged from a high of 2.40 cases per million persons in Wyoming, to 0 cases in some states. Since Q fever became reportable, case reports have increased by more than 250%. Surveillance for Q fever is essential to establish the distribution and magnitude of disease and to complement U.S. bioterrorism preparedness activities.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.1.0750036
2006-07-01
2019-02-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/75/1/0750036.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.1.0750036&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Maurin M, Raoult D, 1999. Q fever. Clin Microbiol Rev 12: 518–553. [Google Scholar]
  2. Martinov SP, Neikov P, Popov GV, 1989. Experimental Q fever in sheep. Eur J Epidemiol 5: 428–431. [Google Scholar]
  3. Ecklund CM, Parker RR, Lackman DB, 1947. A case of Q fever probably contracted by exposure to ticks in nature. Public Health Rep 62: 1413–1416. [Google Scholar]
  4. Milazzo A, Hall R, Storm PA, Winslow W, Marmion BP, 2001. Sexually transmitted Q fever. Clin Infect Dis 33: 399–402. [Google Scholar]
  5. Raoult D, Tissot-Dupont H, Foucault C, Gouvernet J, Fournier PE, Bernit E, Stein A, Nesri M, Harle JR, Weiller PJ,2000. Q fever 1985–1998: clinical and epidemiologic features of 1,383 infections. Medicine (Baltimore) 79: 109–123. [Google Scholar]
  6. Hornibrook JW, Nelson KR, 1940. An institutional outbreak of pneumonitis. I. Epidemiological and clinical studies. Public Health Rep 55: 1936–1944. [Google Scholar]
  7. Lyytikainen O, Ziese T, Schwartlander B, MatzdorffP, Kuhnhen C, Jager C, Petersen L,1998. An outbreak of sheep-associated Q fever in a rural community in Germany. Eur J Epidemiol 14: 193–199. [Google Scholar]
  8. Raoult D, Stein D, 1994. Q fever during pregnancy: a risk for women, fetuses, and obstetricians. N Engl J Med 330: 370–371. [Google Scholar]
  9. Ayres JG, Flint N, Smith EG, Tunnicliffe WS, Fletcher TJ, Hammond K, Ward D, Marmion BP, 1998. Post-infection fatigue syndrome following Q fever. QJM 91: 105–123. [Google Scholar]
  10. D’Angelo LJ, Baker EF, Schlosser W, 1979. Q fever in the United States, 1948–1977. J Infect Dis 139: 613–615. [Google Scholar]
  11. McQuiston JH, Childs JE, 2002. Q fever in humans and animals in the United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2: 179–191. [Google Scholar]
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000. Biological and chemical terrorism: strategic plan for preparedness and response. MMWR Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep 49: 1–14. [Google Scholar]
  13. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, Placing Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) under national surveillance in the United States under the National Public Health Surveillance System (NPHSS). ID-1. 1999. Available from http://www.cste.org/ps/1999/1999-id-01.htm.
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1991. National electronic telecommunications system for surveillance—United States, 1990–1991. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 40: 502–503. [Google Scholar]
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002. Summary of notifiable diseases—United States, 2000. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 49: 1–100. [Google Scholar]
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003. Summary of notifiable diseases—United States, 2001. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 50: 1–108. [Google Scholar]
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004. Summary of notifiable diseases—United States, 2002. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 51: 1–84. [Google Scholar]
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005. Summary of notifiable diseases—United States, 2003. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52: 1–85. [Google Scholar]
  19. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Population Estimates, United States—State and Puerto Rico, April 1, 2000 to July 4, 2004 (GCT-T1-R); Accessed January 19, 2005. Available from http://www.census.gov/popest/states/NST-ann-est.html.
  20. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Annual Estimates of the Population by Sex and Five-Year Age Groups for the United States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2004 (NC-EST2004-01); Accessed August 18, 2005. Available from http://www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/NC-EST2004-na.html.
  21. Fournier PE, Marrie TJ, Raoult D, 1998. Diagnosis of Q fever. J Clin Microbiol 36: 1823–1834. [Google Scholar]
  22. Pebody RG, Wall PG, Ryan MJ, Fairly C, 1996. Epidemiological features of Coxiella burnetii infection in England and Wales: 1984–1994. Communicable Dis Rep 6: R128–R132. [Google Scholar]
  23. Garner MG, Longbottom HM, Cannon RM, Plant AJ, 1997. A review of Q fever in Australia 1991–1994. Aust N Z J Public Health 21: 722–730. [Google Scholar]
  24. United States Department of Agriculture, 1999. Cattle: final estimates 1994–1998. National Agricultural Statistics Service. Stat Bull 953: 1–24. [Google Scholar]
  25. United States Department of Agriculture, 1999. Milk cows and production: final estimates 1993–1997. National Agricultural Statistics Service. Stat Bull 952: 1–45. [Google Scholar]
  26. United States Department of Agriculture, 1999. Sheep and goats: final estimates 1994–1998. National Agricultural Statistics Service. Stat Bull 954a: 1–27. [Google Scholar]
  27. Leone M, Honstettre A, Lepidi H, Capo C, Bayard F, Raoult D, Mege JL, 2004. Effect of sex on Coxiella burnetii infection: protective role of 17β-estradiol. J Infect Dis 189: 339–345. [Google Scholar]
  28. Maltezou HC, Raoult D, 2002. Q fever in children. Lancet Infect Dis 2: 686–691. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.1.0750036
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.1.0750036
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 16 Nov 2005
  • Accepted : 28 Feb 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error