Volume 74, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


The Bioko Island Malaria Control Project was initiated in 2003 to substantially reduce malaria on the island of Bioko in Equatorial Guinea. The intervention consisted of generalized indoor residual spraying during the first year of the project. Case management and related measures were introduced during the second year. Two large household and parasitemia surveys of children 2 to < 15 years of age were carried out in 2004 and 2005, respectively, to assess the effect of the intervention after the first year. Patient records were collected retrospectively from one district hospital and analyzed for a comparison of pre-intervention and post-intervention periods. Overall mean prevalence of infection reduced from 46% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 40–51%) at baseline in 2004 to 31% (95% CI = 24–40%) in 2005 ( < 0.001). When the 12-month pre-intervention period was compared with the 12-month post-intervention period, there was a modest but statistically significant reduction in the number of malaria cases among hospital patients.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Cano J, Berzosa PJ, Roche J, Rubio JM, Moyano E, Guerra-Neira A, Brochero H, Mico M, Edu M, Benito A, 2004. Malaria vectors in the Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea): estimation of vector dynamics and transmission intensities. J Med Entomol 41 : 158–161. [Google Scholar]
  2. Conteh L, Sharp BL, Streat E, Barreto A, Konar S, 2004. The cost and cost-effectiveness of malaria vector control by residual insecticide house-spraying in southern Mozambique: a rural and urban analysis. Trop Med Int Health 9 : 125–132. [Google Scholar]
  3. Booman M, Sharp BL, Martin CL, Manjate B, La Grange K, Durrheim DN, 2003. Enhancing malaria control using a computerized management system in Southern Africa. Malaria J 2 : 1–5. [Google Scholar]
  4. MapInfo Professional version 7.5 supplement, 2003. Troy, NY: Mapinfo Corporation, 67–70.
  5. Rao JNK, Scott AJ, 1981. The analysis of categorical data from complex sample surveys: chi-squared tests for goodness of fit and independence in two-way tables. J Am Stat Assoc 76 : 221–230. [Google Scholar]
  6. StataCorp, 2003. Stata Statistical Software: Release 8.0. College Station, TX: Stata Corporation.
  7. Survey Data, Reference Manual, 2003. Release 8. College Station, TX: Stata Press.
  8. Snounou G, Viriyakosol S, Zhu XP, Jarra W, Pinheiro L, do Rosario VE, Thaithong S, Brown KN, 1993. High sensitivity of detection of human malaria parasites by the use of nested polymerase chain reaction. Mol Biochem Parasitol 61 : 315–320. [Google Scholar]
  9. Snounou G, Pinheiro L, Goncalves A, Fonseca L, Dias F, Brown KN, do Rosario VE, 1993. The importance of sensitive detection of malaria parasites in the human and insect hosts in epidemiological studies, as shown by the analysis of field samples from Guinea Bissau. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 : 649–653. [Google Scholar]
  10. Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa/Atlas du Risque de la Malaria en Afrique (MARA/AMRA), 1998. Towards an Atlas of Malaria Risk in Africa. First technical report of the MARA/ARMA collaboration. Durban, South Africa. Available from http://www.mara.org.za
  11. Beier JC, Killen GF, Githure JI, 1999. Short report: entomologic inoculation rates and Plasmodium falciparum malaria prevalence in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 61 : 109–113. [Google Scholar]
  12. Craig M, Bredenkamp B, Vaughan Williams C, Roussow E, Kelly V, Kleinschmidt I, Martineau A, Henry G, 2002. Field and laboratory evaluation of ten rapid malaria diagnostic tests. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96 : 258–265. [Google Scholar]
  13. Roche J, Ayecaba S, Amela C, Alvar J, Benito A, 1996. Epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Equatorial Guinea. Res Rev Parasitol 56 : 99–104. [Google Scholar]
  14. Roche J, De Diego JA, Penin P, Santos M, Del Rey J, 1991. An epidemiological study of malaria in Bioko and Annobón islands (Equatorial Guinea). Ann Trop Med Parasitol 85 : 477–487. [Google Scholar]
  15. Kleinschmidt I, Omumbo J, Briët O, van de Giesen N, Sogoba N, Mensah NK, Windmeijer P, Moussa M, Teuscher T, 2001. An empirical malaria distribution map for West Africa. Trop Med Int Health 6 : 779–786. [Google Scholar]
  16. Baird JK, Masbar S, Basri H, Tirtokusumo S, Subianto B, Hoffman SL, 1998. Age-dependent susceptibility to severe disease with primary exposure to Plasmodium falciparum. J Infect Dis 178 : 592–595. [Google Scholar]
  17. Gupta S, Snow RW, Donnelly C, Marsh K, Newbold C, 1999. Immunity to severe malaria is acquired after one or two exposures. Nat Med 5 : 340–343. [Google Scholar]
  18. Kleinschmidt I, Sharp B, 2001. Patterns in age-specific malaria incidence in a population exposed to low levels of malaria transmission intensity. Trop Med Int Health 6 : 986–991. [Google Scholar]
  19. Snow RW, Craig M, Deichmann U, Marsh K, 1999. Estimating mortality, morbidity and disability due to malaria among Africa’s non-pregnant population. Bull World Health Organ 77 : 617–618. [Google Scholar]
  20. World Health Organization/UNICEF, 2003. The Africa Malaria Report. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  21. Smith TA, Leuenberger R, Lengeler C, 2001. Child mortality and malaria transmission intensity in Africa. Trends Parasitol 17 : 145–149. [Google Scholar]
  22. Arudo J, Gimnig JE, ter Kuile FO, Kachur SP, Slutsker L, Kolczak MS, Hawley WA, Orago AS, Nahlen BL, Phillips-Howard PA, 2003. Comparison of government statistics and demographic surveillance to monitor mortality in children less than five years old in rural western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 (4 Suppl ): 30–37. [Google Scholar]
  23. Mabaso MLH, Sharp B, Lengeler C, 2004. Historical review of malarial control in southern Africa with emphasis on the use of indoor residual house-spraying. Trop Med Int Health 9 : 846–856. [Google Scholar]
  24. Sharp B, van Wyck P, Sikasote J, Banda P, Kleinschmidt I, 2002. Malaria control by residual insecticide spraying in Chingola and Chililabombwe, Copperbelt Province, Zambia. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 732–736. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 29 Sep 2005
  • Accepted : 06 Jan 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error