Volume 74, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


To determine regional estimates of pathogen-specific prevalence and incidence, as well as, describe morbidity associated with diarrhea among deployed US military and similar populations, a systematic review was conducted for publications between January 1990 to June 2005. Point estimates and confidence intervals of pathogen prevalence and travelers’ diarrhea incidence were combined in a random effects model and assessed for heterogeneity. In total, 262 studies were identified for potential inclusion, of which 52 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Overall, 38% were from the Middle East, 29% from Southeast Asia, 27% from Latin America/Caribbean, and 6% from sub-Saharan Africa. Median duration of travel was 1.5 months (interquartile range, 1–3 months). Enterotoxigenic (ETEC), , and Shigella were identified as causing 38–45% of diarrhea, with regional and population differences. Incidence based on self-report was higher than studies using passive surveillance or clinic-based methods (29 versus 7 versus 6 episodes per 100 person-months, respectively) without regional differences.


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  • Received : 15 Sep 2005
  • Accepted : 29 Dec 2005

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