Volume 74, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Data from two cross-sectional investigations on 7,138 subjects were used to explore risk factors of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in Tibetan communities. The overall human AE prevalence was 3.1% (223 of 7,138), females had a higher prevalence (3.6%, 132 of 3,713) than males (2.7%, 91 of 3,425; = 0.011), and herdsmen had a higher prevalence (5.2%, 154 of 2,955) than farmers (1.8%, 12 of 661; < 0.001) and urban populations (2.1%, 49 of 2,360; < 0.001). Age in all populations, number of dogs kept, fox skin ownership in farmers, not preventing flies from landing on food in herdsmen, using open streams as drinking water sources, and playing with dogs in urban populations were statistically significant risk factors. The results suggest that AE is highly endemic in the eastern Tibetan plateau, in Sichuan Province, the role of the dog is important for human infection, and other factors associated with environmental contamination may vary according to structure and practices of communities.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Eckert J, Deplazes P, 1999. Alveolar echinococcosis in human: The current situation in Central Europe and the need for countermeasures. Parasitol Today 15 : 315–319. [Google Scholar]
  2. Wen H, Chai JJ, Wang JC, Wang SH, Wang XY, Feng XH, Zhou HX, 2002. Hydatid Control within a Continental System in P.R.China. Craig P, Pawlowski Z, eds. Cestode Zoonoses: Echinococcosis and Cysticercosis. NATO Science Series. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 355–366.
  3. Vuitton DA, Zhou HX, Bresson-Hadni S, Wang Q, Piarroux M, Raoul F, Giraudoux P, 2003. Epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis with particular reference to China and Europe. Parasitology 127 : S87–S107. [Google Scholar]
  4. Qiu JM, Liu FJ, Schantz P, Ito A, Carol D, He JG, 1999. Epidemiological Survey of Hydatidosis in Tibetan Areas of Western Sichuan Province. Larrieu E, Romeo S, Mehapide C eds. XXXIII Archivos Internacionales de la Hidatidosis: 84.
  5. Kern P, Ammon A, Kron M, Sinn G, Sander S, Petersen LR, Gaus W, Kern P, 2004. Risk factors for alveolar echinococcosis in humans. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 2088–2093. [Google Scholar]
  6. Craig PS, Giraudoux P, Shi D, Bartholomot B, Barnish G, Delattre P, Quere JP, Harraga S, Bao G, Wang Y, Lu F, Ito A, Vuitton DA, 2000. An epidemiological and ecological study of human alveolar echinococcosis transmission in south Gansu, China. Acta Trop 77 : 167–177. [Google Scholar]
  7. Budke CM, Campos-Poncec M, Wang Q, Torgerson PR, 2005. A canine purgation study and risk factor analysis for echinococcosis in a high endemic region of the Tibetan plateau. Vet Parasitol 127 : 43–49. [Google Scholar]
  8. Wang Q, Vuitton DA, Qiu JM, Giraudoux P, Xiao YF, Schantz PM, Raoul F, Li TY, Yang W, Craig P, 2004. Fenced pasture: a possible risk factor for human alveolar echinococcosis in Tibetan pastoralist communities of Sichuan, China. Acta Trop 90 : 285–293. [Google Scholar]
  9. Wang Q, Qiu JM, Schantz P, He JG, Ito A, Liu F, 2001. Risk factors for development of human hydatidosis among people whose family is raising livestock in western Sichuan Province, China. Chin J Parasitic Dis Parasitol 19 : 289–293. [Google Scholar]
  10. Ito A, Nakao M, Kutsumi H, Lightowlers MW, Itoh M, Sato S, 1993. Serodiagnosis of alveolar hydatid diseases by Western blotting. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 : 170–172. [Google Scholar]
  11. Bartholomot B, Vuitton D, Harraga D, Shi DZ, Giraudoux P, Barnish G, Wang YH, Macpherson CNL, Craig PS, 2002. Combined ultrasound and serologic screening for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis in central China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 23–29. [Google Scholar]
  12. Schantz PM, Wang H, Qiu J, Liu FJ, Saito E, Emshoff A, Ito A, Roberts JM, Delker C, 2003. Echinococcosis on the Tibetan Plateau: prevalence and risk factors for cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in Tibetan populations in Qinghai Province, China. Parasitology 127 : S109–S120. [Google Scholar]
  13. Bresson-Hadni S, Vuitton DA, Bartholomot B, Heyd B, Godard D, Meyer JP, Hrusovsky S, Becker MC, Mantion G, Lenys D, Miguet JP, 2000. A twenty-year history of alveolar echinococcosis in humans: analysis of a series of 117 patients from eastern France. Eur J Gastroenterol 12 : 327–336. [Google Scholar]
  14. Yang YR, Vuitton DA, Jones MK, Craig PS, McManus DP, 2005. Brain metastasis of alveolar echinococcosis in a hyperendemic focus of Echinococcus multilocularis infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99 : 937–941. [Google Scholar]
  15. Lawson JR, Gemmell MA, 1985. The potential role of blowflies in the transmission of taeniid tapeworm eggs. Parasitology 91 : 129–143. [Google Scholar]
  16. Li G, Shi XQ, 1985. A case report of human AE in Heilongjiang. Chi Sheng Chung Hsueh Yu Chi Sheng Chung Ping Tsa Chih 3 : 8. [Google Scholar]
  17. Yu SH, Xu LQ, Jiang ZX, Xu SH, Han JJ, Zhu YG, Chang J, Lin JX, Xu FN, 1994. Report on the first national wide survey of human parasites in China 1. Regional distribution of parasite species. Chin J Parasitic Dis Parasitol 12 : 241–247. [Google Scholar]
  18. Craig PS, Deshan L, MacPherson CN, Dazhong S, Reynolds D, Barnish G, Gottstein B, Zhirong W, 1992. A large focus of alveolar echinococcosis in central China. Lancet 340 : 826–831. [Google Scholar]
  19. Giraudoux P, Delattre P, Takahashi K, Raoul F, Quere K-P, Craig P, Vuitton D, 2002. Transmission ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis in wildlife: what can be learned from comparative studies and multiscale approaches? Craig P, Pawlowski Z, eds. Cestode Zoonoses: Echinococcosis and Cysticercosis. NATO Science Series, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 251–266.
  20. Giraudoux P, Craig PS, Delattre P, Bao G, Bartholomot B, Harraga S, Quere JP, Raoul F, Wang Y, Shi D, Vuitton DA, 2003. Interactions between landscape changes and host communities can regulate Echinococcus multilocularis transmission. Parasitology 127 (Suppl)127: S121–S131. [Google Scholar]
  21. Schantz PM, 1993. Echinococcus multilocularis in North America. Uchino J, Sato N, eds. Alveolar Echincoccosis of the Liver. Volume 30. Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University School of Medicine. Medical Library Series, 11–20.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 11 Feb 2005
  • Accepted : 08 Sep 2005

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error