Volume 74, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Dogs are domestic reservoir hosts of , the etiological agent of Chagas disease. We evaluated the effect of deltamethrin-treated dog collars (DTDCs) over time on the population dynamics of a main vector. Forty founder bugs of mixed life stages were allowed to colonize mud-thatched experimental huts and exposed continuously to either uncollared control dogs ( = 3) or dogs wearing DTDCs ( = 7) for a period of up to 196 days. When compared with bugs exposed to control dogs, bugs exposed to collared dogs were shown to have reduced feeding success (odds ratio [OR] = 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26–0.63; < 0.001) and lower survival (OR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.08–0.29; < 0.001); in fact, all of the bug populations exposed to collared dogs became extinct 77–196 days after study initiation. Bugs exposed to DTDC-wearing dogs were also shown to have a lower fecundity (i.e., number of eggs produced per live female bug: OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51–0.81; < 0.001) and molting rate to first-instar nymphs (OR = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.13–0.75; < 0.01) than those bugs exposed to control dogs. DTDCs could represent a novel tool to prevent and control canine and (hence) human Chagas disease.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. World Health Organization, 2004. The World Health Report 2004. Changing History. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  2. Prata A, 2001. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease. Lancet Infect. Dis 1 : 92–100. [Google Scholar]
  3. Schofield CJ, Dias JC, 1999. The Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas disease. Adv Parasitol 42 : 1–27. [Google Scholar]
  4. Dias JCP, Silveira AC, Schofield CJ, 2002. The impact of Chagas disease control in Latin America. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97 : 603–612. [Google Scholar]
  5. Gürtler RE, Petersen RM, Cecere MC, Schweigmann NJ, Chuit R, Gaultieri JM, Wisnivesky-Colli C, 1994. Chagas disease in north-west Argentina: risk of domestic reinfestation by Triatoma infestans after a single community-wide application of deltamethrin. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88 : 27–30. [Google Scholar]
  6. Cecere MC, Vazquez-Prokopec GM, Gurtler RE, Kitron U, 2004. Spatio-temporal analysis of reinfestation by Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) following insecticide spraying in a rural community in northwestern Argentina. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 : 803–810. [Google Scholar]
  7. Gürtler RE, Cecere MC, Lauricella MA, Petersen RM, Chuit R, Segura EL, Cohen JE, 2005. Incidence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among children following domestic reinfestation after insecticide spraying in rural northwestern Argentina. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73 : 95–103. [Google Scholar]
  8. Minter DM, 1976. In American Trypanosomiasis Research. Washington, DC: Panamerican Health Organization Science Publication 318, pp. 330–337.
  9. Cohen JE, Gürtler RE, 2001. Modeling household transmission of American trypanosomiasis. Science 293 : 694–698. [Google Scholar]
  10. Reithinger R, Ceballos L, Stariolo R, Davies CR, Gürtler RE, 2005. Chagas disease control: deltamethrin-treated collars reduce Triatoma infestans feeding success on dogs. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 99 : 502–508. [Google Scholar]
  11. Cecere MC, Canale DM, Gürtler RE, 2003. Effects of refuge availability on the population dynamics of Triatoma infestans in central Argentina. J Appl Ecol 40 : 742–756. [Google Scholar]
  12. Ceballos LA, Vazquez-Prokopec GM, Cecere MC, Marcel PL, Gürtler RE, 2005. Feeding rates, nutritional status and flight dispersal potential of peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans in rural northwestern Argentina. Acta Tropica 95 : 149–159. [Google Scholar]
  13. Crawley MJ, 2003. GLIM for Ecologists. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
  14. Reithinger R, Coleman PG, Alexander B, Vieira EP, Assis G, Davies CR, 2004. Are insecticide-impregnated dog collars a feasible alternative to dog culling as a strategy for controlling canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil? Int J Parasitol 34 : 55–62. [Google Scholar]
  15. Gürtler RE, Cohen JE, Cecere MC, Chuit R, 1997. Shifting host choices of the vector of Chagas disease Triatoma infestans in relation to the availability of hosts in houses in north-west Argentina. J Appl Ecol 34 : 699–715. [Google Scholar]
  16. Gürtler RE, Cecere MC, Castanera MB, Canale D, Lauricella MA, Chuit R, Cohen JE, Segura EL, 1996. Probability of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the vector Triatoma infestans fed on infected humans and dogs in north-west Argentina. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 : 24–31. [Google Scholar]
  17. Gürtler RE, Cohen JE, Cecere MC, Lauricella MA, Chuit R, Segura EL, 1998. Influence of humans and domestic animals on the household prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in Triatoma infestans populations in northwest Argentina. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58 : 748–758. [Google Scholar]
  18. Schofield CJ, 2001. Global Collaboration of for Development of Pesticides for Public Health. Challenges of Chagas Disease Vector Control in Central America. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  19. Regis L, 1979. The role of the blood meal in egg-laying periodicity and fecundity in Triatoma infestans. Inst J Invertebr Reprod 1 : 187–195. [Google Scholar]
  20. Gorla DE, 1991. Recovery of Triatoma infestans populations after insecticide application: an experimental field study. Med Vet Entomol. 5 : 311–324. [Google Scholar]
  21. Alzogaray RA, Zerba EN, 1996. Comparative toxicity of delta-methrin and cis-permethrin on first instars of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). J Med Entomol. 33 : 58–62. [Google Scholar]
  22. Schofield CJ, 1982. The role of blood intake in density regulation of populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Bull Ent Res 72 : 617–629 [Google Scholar]
  23. Goncalves TC, Cunha V, de Oliveira E, Jurberg J, 1997. Various aspects of the biology of Triatoma pseudomaculata Correa & Espinola, 1964, in laboratory conditions (Hemiptera:Reduviidae:Triatominae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 92 : 275–280. [Google Scholar]
  24. Canals M, Solis R, Tapia C, Ehrenfeld M, Cattan P, 1999. Comparison of some behavioral and physiological feeding parameters of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 and Mepraia spinolai Porter, 1934, vectors of Chagas disease in Chile. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 94 : 687–692. [Google Scholar]
  25. Trumper EV, Gorla DE, 1991. Density-dependent timing of defaecation by Triatoma infestans. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85 : 800–802. [Google Scholar]
  26. Shadomy SV, Waring SC, Marins-Filho OA, Oliveira RC, Chappell CL, 2004. Combined use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry to detect antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in domestic canines in Texas. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 11 : 313–319. [Google Scholar]
  27. Beard CB, Pye G, Steurer FJ, Rodriguez R, Campman R, Peterson AT, Ramsey J, Wirtz RA, Robinson LE, 2003. Chagas disease in a domestic transmission cycle, southern Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 9 : 103–105. [Google Scholar]
  28. Akhavan D, 1997. Análise de Custo-Efetividade do Programa de Controle da Doença de Chagas no Brasil. Brasilia, Brazil: Fundação Nacional da Saúde.
  29. Alvar J, Canavate C, Molina R, Moreno J, Nieto J, 2004. Canine leishmaniasis. Adv Parasitol 57 : 1–88. [Google Scholar]
  30. Kolaczinski JH, Curtis CF, 2004. Chronic illness as a result of low-level exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides: a review of the debate. Food Chem Toxicol 42 : 697–706. [Google Scholar]
  31. Anonymous, 2005. Safety of Pyrethroids for Public Health Use. Geneva, Switzerland: Word Health Organization.
  32. Barlow SM, Sullivan FM, Lines J, 2001. Risk assessment of the use of deltamethrin on bednets for the prevention of malaria. Food Chem Toxicol 39 : 407–422. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 19 Sep 2005
  • Accepted : 13 Jan 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error