1921
Volume 74, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Control and glucocorticoid-treated dogs were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) through the bites of infected mosquitoes to study the effect of a commonly used immunomodulator on the magnitude and duration of viremia and on development of clinical disease. All dogs became viremic after challenge. The peak viremia and integrated magnitude of viremia were approximately 40 and 50 times higher, respectively, in the five dogs treated with methyl-prednisolone for 1 month compared with untreated dogs. None of the five control or treated dogs developed signs of clinical disease, nor was histopathologic evidence of neuroinvasion observed in any case. Neutralizing antibodies to WNV were produced in all dogs, with no apparent effect of glucocorticoid treatment. Considering the dramatic effect of glucocorticoid treatment on magnitude of viremia, it is likely that this therapy had suppressive effects on some aspect of innate immunity or T cell function.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.670
2006-04-01
2017-09-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/74/4/0740670.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.670&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. McLean RG, Ubico SR, Bourne D, Komar N, 2002. West Nile virus in livestock and wildlife. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267 : 271–308.
  2. Komar N, Langevin S, Hinten S, Nemeth N, Edwards E, Hettler D, Davis B, Bowen R, Bunning M, 2003. Experimental Infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 311–322.
  3. Motstashari F, Bunning ML, Kitsutani PT, Singer DA, Nash D, Cooper MJ, Katz N, Liljebjelke KA, Biggerstaff BJ, Fine AD, Layton MC, Mullin SM, Johnson AJ, Martin DA, Hayes EB, Campbell GL, 2001. Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York 1999: results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey. Lancet 358 : 261–264.
  4. Klein C, Kimiagar I, Pollak L, Gandelman-Marton R, Itzhaki A, Milo R, Rabey JM, 2002. Neurological features of West Nile virus infection during the 2000 outbreak in a regional hospital in Israel. J Neurol Sci 200 : 63–66.
  5. Huang C, Slater B, Rudd R, Parchuri N, Hull R, Dupuis M, Hindenburg A, 2002. First isolation of West Nile virus from a patient with encephalitis in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 1367–1371.
  6. Hardinger KL, Miller B, Storch GA, Desai NM, Brennan DC, 2003. West Nile virus-associated meningoencephalitis in two chronically immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 3 : 1312–1315.
  7. Hong DS, Jacobson KL, Raad II, de Lima M, Anderlini P, Fuller GN, Ippoliti C, Cool RM, Leeds NE, Narvios A, HanXY, Padula A, Champlin RE, Hosing C, 2003. West Nile encephalitis in 2 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: case series and literature review. Clin Infect Dis 37 : 1044–1049.
  8. Iwamoto M, Jernigan DB, Guasch A, Trepka MJ, Blackmore CG, Hellinger WC, Pham SM, Zaki S, Lanciotti RS, Lance-Parker SE, DiazGranados CA, Winquist AG, Perlino CA, Wiersma S, Hillyer KL, Goodman JL, Marfin AA, Chamberland ME, Petersen LR, 2003. Transmission of West Nile virus from an organ donor to four transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 348 : 2196–2203.
  9. Cushing MM, Brat DJ, Mosunjac MI, Hennigar RA, Jernigan DB, Lanciotti R, Petersen LR, Goldsmith C, Rollin PE, Shieh WJ, Guarner J, Zaki SR, 2004. Fatal West Nile virus encephalitis in a renal transplant recipient. Am J Clin Pathol 121 : 26–31.
  10. DeSalvo D, Roy-Chaudhury P, Peddi R, Merchen T, Konijetti K, Gupta M, Boardman R, Rogers C, Buell J, Hanaway M, Broderick J, Smith R, Woodle ES, 2004. West Nile virus encephalitis in organ transplant recipients: another high-risk group for meningoencephalitis and death. Transplantation 77 : 466–469.
  11. Kumar D, Prasad GVR, Zaltzman J, Levy GA, Humar A, 2004. Community-acquired West Nile virus infection in sold-organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 77 : 399.
  12. Ravindra KV, Freifeld AG, Kalil AC, Mercer DF, Grant WJ, Botha JF, Wrenshall LE, Stevens RB, 2004. West Nile virus-associated encephalitis in recipients of renal and pancreas transplants: case series and literature review. Clin Infect Dis 39 : 1398–1399.
  13. Blackburn NK, Reyers F, Berry WL, Shepherd AJ, 1989. Susceptibility of dogs to West Nile virus: a survey and pathogenicity trial. J Comp Pathol 100 : 59–66.
  14. Austgen LE, Bowen RA, Bunning ML, Davis BS, Mitchell CJ, Chang G, 2004. Experimental infection of cats and dogs with West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 82–86.
  15. Karaca K, Bowen R, Austgen LE, Teehee M, Siger L, Grosenbaugh D, Loosemore L, Audonnet J, Nordgren R, Minke JM, 2005. Recombinant canarypox-vectored West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine protects dogs and cats against a mosquito WNV challenge. Vaccine 23 : 3808–3813.
  16. Kile JC, Panella NA, Komar N, Chow CC, MacNeil A, Robbins B, Bunning ML, 2005. Serologic survey of cats and dogs during an epidemic of West Nile virus infection in humans. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226 : 1349–1353.
  17. Buckweitz S, Kleiboeker S, Marioni K, Ramos-Vara J, Rottinghaus A, Schwabenton B, Johnson G, 2003. Serological, reverse-transcriptasae-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemical detection of West Nile virus in a clinically affected dog. J Vet Diagn Invest 15 : 324–329.
  18. Lichtensteiger CA, Heinz-Taheny K, Osborne TS, Novak RJ, Lewis BA, Firth ML, 2003. West Nile virus encephalitis and myocarditis in a wolf and dog. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 1303–1306.
  19. Bunning ML, Bowen RA, Cropp CB, Sullivan KG, Davis BS, Komar N, Godsey MS, Baker D, Hettler DL, Holmes DA, Biggerstaff BJ, Mitchell CJ, 2002. Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 380–386.
  20. van Staa TP, Leufkens HGM, Abenhaim L, Begaud B, Zhang B, Cooper C, 2000. Use of oral corticosteroids in the United Kingdom. Q J Med 93 : 105–111.
  21. Ashwell JD, Lu FWM, Vacchio MS, 2000. Glucocorticoids in T cell development and function. Ann Rev Immunol 18 : 309–345.
  22. Franchimon D, 2004. Overview of the actions of glucocorticoids on immune function. Ann NY Acad Sci 1024 : 124–137.
  23. Ben-Nathan D, Lustig S, Kobiler D, 1996. Cold stress-induced neuroinvasiveness of attenuated arboviruses is not solely mediated by corticosterone. Arch Virol 141 : 1221–1229.
  24. Blau JN, Jones RN, Kennedy LA, 1968. Hassell’s corpuscles: a measure of activity in the thymus during involution and reconstitution. Immunology 15 : 561–570.
  25. Behrend EN, Kemppainen RJ, 1997. Glucocorticoid therapy. Pharmacology, indications and complications. Vet Clin North Am 27 : 187–213.
  26. Sardelis MR, Turell MJ, Dohm DJ, O’Guinn ML, 2001. Vector competence of selected North American Culex and Coquillettidia mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 1018–1022.
  27. Goddard LB, Roth AE, Reisen WK, Scott TW, 2002. Vector competence of California mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 1385–1391.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.670
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.670
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 Aug 2005
  • Accepted : 28 Nov 2005

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error