1921
Volume 74, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Monitoring the spread of the knockdown resistance allele in areas of extensive pyrethroid use is critical to vector-control projects. Currently available methods for detecting from DNA samples are characterized by poor amplification, time-consuming steps, and primers that exhibit frequent null alleles. We describe a new PCR diagnostic that uses fluorescent primers based on conserved priming sites and enables simple detection of the allele on a sequencer. Using samples from a West African population, we show that the new PCR yielded significantly higher rates of amplification and more accurate estimates of frequency. The method works equally well for the leucine to phenylalanine substitution found in West Africa and the East African leucine to serine substitution.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.658
2006-04-01
2017-11-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/74/4/0740658.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.658&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 1999. The World Health Report 1999: Making a difference. Geneva, World Health Organization.
  2. Marshall E, 2001. A renewed assault on an old and deadly foe. Science 290 : 428–430.
  3. Coluzzi M, Sabatini A, 1967. Cytogenetic observations on species A and B of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Parassitologia 9 : 71–88.
  4. Davidson G, Paterson HE, Coluzzi M, Mason GF, Micks DW, 1967. The Anopheles gambiae complex. Wright JW, Pal R, eds. Genetics of Insect Vectors of Disease. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 211–250.
  5. Coetzee M, Craig M, Le Sueur D, 2000. Distribution of African malaria mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex. Parasitol Today 16 : 74–77.
  6. Bryan JH, Di Deco MA, Petrarca V, Coluzzi M, 1982. Inversion polymorphism and incipient speciation in Anopheles gambiae s. str. in the Gambiae, West Africa. Genetica 59 : 167–176.
  7. Touré YT, Petrarca V, Coluzzi M, 1983. Nueva entita del complesso Anopheles gambiae in Mali. Parrasitologia 25 : 367–370.
  8. Coluzzi M, Petrarca V, Di Deco MA, 1985. Chromosomal inversion intergradation and incipient speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Bollettino di Zoologia 52 : 45–63.
  9. Favia G, Della Torre A, Bagyaoko M, Lanfrancotti A, Sagnon NF, Toure YT, Coluzzi M, 1997. Molecular identifications of sympatric chromosomal forms of Anopheles gambiae and further evidence of their reproductive isolation. Insect Mol Biol 6 : 377–383.
  10. Favia G, Lanfrancotti A, Spanos L, Sidén-Kiamos I, Louis C, 2001. Molecular characterization of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymorphisms discriminating among chromosomal forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Insect Mol Biol 10 : 19–23.
  11. Della Torre A, Costantini C, Besansky NJ, Caccone A, Petrarca V, Powell JR, Coluzzi M, 2002. Speciation within Anopheles gambiae - the glass is half full. Science 298 : 115–117.
  12. Gentile G, Della Torre A, Maegga B, Powell JR, Caccone A, 2002. Genetic differentiation in the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., and the problem of taxonomic status. Genetics 161 : 1561–1578.
  13. Wondji C, Simard F, Fontenille D, 2002. Evidence for genetic differentiation between the molecular forms M and S within the Forest chromosomal form of Anopheles gambiae in an area of sympatry. Insect Mol Biol 11 : 11–19.
  14. Choi HW, Breman JG, Teutsch SM, Liu S, Hightower AW, Sexton JD, 1995. The effectiveness of insecticide-impregnated bed nets in reducing cases of malaria infection: a meta-analysis of published results. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52 : 377–382.
  15. Mittal PK, Adak T, Sharma VP, 1991. Acute toxicity of certain organochlorine, organophosphorus, synthetic pyrethroid and microbial insecticides to the mosquito fish Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard). Indian J Malariol 28 : 167–170.
  16. Hemingway J, Ranson H, 2000. Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human disease. Annu Rev Entomol 45 : 371–391.
  17. Ranson H, Jensen B, Vulule JM, Wang X, Hemingway J, Collins FH, 2000. Identification of a point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Kenyan Anopheles gambiae associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Insect Mol Biol 9 : 491–497.
  18. Martinez-Torres D, Chandre F, Williamson MS, Darriet F, Bergé JB, Devonshire AL, Guillet P, Pasteur N, Pauron D, 1998. Molecular characterization of pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Insect Mol Biol 7 : 179–184.
  19. Elissa N, Mouchet J, Riviere F, Meunier JY, Yao K, 1993. Resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.s. to pyrethroids in Cote d’Ivoire. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 73 : 291–294.
  20. Weill M, Chandre F, Brengues C, Manguin S, Akogbeto M, Pasteur N, Guillet P, Raymond M, 2000. The kdr mutation occurs in the Mopti form of Anopheles gambiae s.s. through introgression. Insect Mol Biol 9 : 451–455.
  21. Diabate A, Baldet T, Chandre C, Dabire KR, Kengne P, Guiguemde TR, Simard F, Guillet P, Hemingway J, Hougard JM, 2003. Kdr mutation, a genetic marker to assess events of introgression between the molecular M and S forms of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in the tropical savannah area of West Africa. J Med Entomol 40 : 195–198.
  22. Diabate A, Brengues C, Baldet T, Dabire KR, Hougard JM, Akogbeto M, Kengne P, Simard F, Guillet P, Hemingway J, Chandre F, 2004. The spread of the Leu-Phe kdr mutation through Anopheles gambiae complex in Burkina Faso: genetic introgression and de novo phenomena. Trop Med Int Health 9 : 1267–1273.
  23. Gentile G, Santolamazza F, Fanello C, Petrarca V, Caccone A, della Torre A, 2004. Variation in an intron sequence of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene correlates with genetic differentiation between Anopheles gambiae s.s. molecular forms. Insect Mol Biol 13 : 371–377.
  24. Fanello C, Petrarca V, della Torre A, Santolamazza F, Dolo G, Coulibaly M, Alloueche A, Curtis CF, Touré YT, Coluzzi M, 2003. The pyrethroid knock-down resistance gene in the Anopheles gambiae complex in Mali and further indication of incipient speciation within An. gambiae s.s. Insect Mol Biol 12 : 241–245.
  25. Yawson AE, McCall PJ, Wilson MD, Donnely MJ, 2004. Species abundance and insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in selected areas of Ghana and Burkina Faso. Med. Vet. Entomol 18 : 372–377.
  26. Stump AD, Atieli FK, Vulule JM, Besansky NJ, 2004. Dynamics of the pyrethroid knockdown resistance allele in western Kenyan populations of Anopheles gambiae in response to insecticide-treated bed net trials. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70 : 591–596.
  27. Lanzaro GC, Tripet F, 2003. Gene flow among populations of Anopheles gambiae: a critical review. Takken W, Scott TW, eds. Ecological Aspects for the Application of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Frontis Press, 109–132.
  28. Reimer LJ, Tripet F, Slotman M, Spielman A, Fondjo E, Lanzaro GC, 2005. An unusual distribution of the kdr gene among populations of Anopheles gambiae on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. Insect Mol Biol 14 : 683–688.
  29. Kolaczinski JH, Fanello C, Hervé J-P, Conway DJ, Carneval P, Curtis F, 2000. Experimental and molecular genetic analysis of the impact of pyrethroid and non-pyrethroid insecticide impregnated bednets for mosquito control in an area of pyrethroid resistance. Bull Entomol Res 9 : 125–132.
  30. Lynd A, Ranson H, McCall PJ, Randle NP, Black WC IV, Walker ED, Donelly MJ, 2005. A simplified high-throughput method for pyrethroid knock-down resistance (kdr) detection in Anopheles gambiae. Malaria J 4 : 16.
  31. Scott JA, Brogdon WG, Collins FH, 1993. Identification of single specimens of the Anopheles gambiae complex by the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49 : 520–529.
  32. Fanello C, Santolamazza F, Della Torre A, 2002. Simultaneous identification of species and molecular forms of the Anopheles gambiae complex by PCR-RFLP. Med Vet Entomol 16 : 461–464.
  33. Rychlik W, 2002. Oligo—Primer Analysis software. Version 6. Molecular Insights, West Cascade, CO.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.658
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.658
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 18 Oct 2005
  • Accepted : 08 Nov 2005

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error