Volume 74, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


The stability of anti-malarial immunity will influence the interpretation of immunologic endpoints during malaria vaccine trials conducted in endemic areas. Therefore, we evaluated cytokine responses to liver stage antigen-1 (LSA-1) and thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) by Kenyans from a holoendemic area at a 9-month interval. The proportion of adults with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) responses to 9-mer LSA-1 peptides was similar at both time-points, whereas responses from children decreased ( < 0.05). Response to the longer, 23-mer LSA-1 peptide was variable, decreasing in adults and children over time ( < 0.02 and < 0.001, respectively). The proportion of children with IFN-γ responses to either antigen at the second time-point was significantly lower than that of adults, yet more adults responded to 9-mer TRAP peptides ( < 0.02). In contrast, the proportion of interleukin-10 responses to LSA-1 and TRAP was similar at both time-points for both age groups. Most noteworthy was that even when the repeat cross-sectional frequency of cytokine responses was the same, these responses were not generated by the same individuals. This suggests that cytokine responses to LSA-1 and TRAP are transient under natural exposure conditions.


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  • Received : 08 Sep 2005
  • Accepted : 08 Dec 2005

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