Volume 74, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Host immunity plays an important role in response to antimalarial therapy but is poorly understood. To test whether T cell activation is a risk factor for antimalarial treatment failure, we studied CD4 and CD8 T cell activation in 31 human immunodeficiency virus–negative Ugandan patients 5–37 years of age who were treated for uncomplicated malaria. Increased CD4 T cell activation, as indicated by co-expression of HLA-DR and CD38, was an independent risk factor for treatment failure (hazard ratio = 2.45, 95% confidence interval = 1.02–5.89, = 0.05) in multivariate analysis controlling for age, baseline temperature, and pre-treatment parasite density. The results provide insight into the role of cellular immunity in response to antimalarial therapy and underscore the need to investigate the mechanisms behind immune activation.


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  • Received : 04 Jun 2005
  • Accepted : 06 Sep 2005

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