1921
Volume 74, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

The southern house mosquito is a principal vector of human lymphatic filariasis, several encephalitides (including West Nile virus), avian malaria, and poxvirus, but its importance as a vector varies considerably among regions. This species has spread with humans and is ubiquitous in tropical urban and suburban environments. This was the first mosquito to reach Hawaii and we performed a worldwide genetic survey using micro-satellite loci to identify its source. Our analyses showed divergent Old World and New World genetic signatures in with further distinctions between east and west African, Asian, and Pacific populations that correlate with the epidemiology of human filariasis. We found that in Hawaii south Pacific mosquitoes have largely replaced the original New World introduction of , consistent with their reported expansion to higher elevations. We hypothesize worldwide pathways of expansion of this disease vector.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.284
2006-02-01
2017-09-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/74/2/0740284.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.284&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Lounibos LP, 2002. Invasions by insect vectors of human disease. Annu Rev Entomol 47 : 233–266.
  2. Tabachnick WJ, 1991. Evolutionary genetics and arthropod born disease. The yellow fever mosquito. Am Entomologist 37 : 14–24.
  3. White GB, 1989. Geographical Distribution of Arthropod-Borne Diseases and their Principal Hosts. Geneva: World Health Organization. Vector Biology Division.
  4. Mak JW, 1987. Epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis. Ciba Found Symp 127 : 5–14.
  5. Knight KL, 1978. Supplement to the Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World (Diptera: Culicidae). College Park, MD: Entomological Society of America.
  6. Nasci RS, Miller BR, 1996. Culicine mosquitoes and the agents they transmit. Beaty BJ, Marquardt WC, eds. The Biology of Disease Vectors. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 85–97.
  7. Warner RE, 1968. The role of introduced diseases in the extinction of the endemic Hawaiian avifauna. Condor 70 : 101–120.
  8. Fonseca DM, Keyghobadi N, Malcolm CA, Mehmet C, Schaffner F, Mogi M, Fleischer RC, Wilkerson RC, 2004. Emerging vectors in the Culex pipiens complex. Science 303 : 1535–1538.
  9. Lorenz L, Beaty BJ, Aitken TH, Wallis GP, Tabachnick WJ, 1984. The effect of colonization upon Aedes aegypti susceptibility to oral infection with yellow fever virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33 : 690–694.
  10. Atkinson CT, Woods KL, Dusek RJ, Sileo LS, Iko WM, 1995. Wildlife disease and conservation in Hawaii: pathogenicity of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in experimentally infected iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea). Parasitology 111 : S59–S69.
  11. Osten-Sacken CR, 1884. XXIV. Facts concerning the importation or non-importation of Diptera into distant countries. The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London: 489–496.
  12. Alexander WD, 1891. A Brief History of the Hawaiian People. New York: American Book Co.
  13. Belkin JN, 1962. The Mosquitoes of the South Pacific (Diptera: Culicidae). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  14. Hardy DE, 1960. Diptera: Nematocera-Brachycera. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  15. Dobson AP, May RM, 1986. Disease and conservation. Soule ME, ed. Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc., 345–365.
  16. Smith JL, Fonseca DM, 2004. Rapid assays for identification of members of the Culex (Culex) pipiens complex, their hybrids, and other sibling species (Diptera: Culicidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg 70 : 339–345.
  17. Fonseca DM, Lapointe DA, Fleischer RC, 2000. Bottlenecks and multiple introductions: population genetics of the vector of avian malaria in Hawaii. Mol Ecol 9 : 1803–1814.
  18. Barr AR, 1957. The distribution of Culex p. pipiens and Culex p. quinquefasciatus in North America. Am J Trop Med Hyg 6 : 153–165.
  19. Fonseca DM, Atkinson CT, Fleischer RC, 1998. Microsatellite primers for Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, the vector of avian malaria in Hawaii. Mol Ecol 7 : 1617–1619.
  20. Keyghobadi N, Matrone MA, Ebel GD, Kramer LD, Fonseca DM, 2004. Microsatellite loci from the northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens), a principal vector of West Nile virus in North America. Mol Ecol Notes 4 : 20–22.
  21. Smith JL, Keyghobadi N, Matrone MA, Escher RL, Fonseca DM, 2005. Cross-species comparison of microsatellite loci in the Culex pipiens complex and beyond. Mol Ecol Notes 5 : 697–700.
  22. Raymond M, Rousset F, 1995. Genepop ver. 1.2: population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. J Hered 86 : 248–249.
  23. Goudet J, 1995. FSTAT (version 1.2): a computer program to calculate F-statistics. J Hered 86 : 485–486.
  24. Bowcock AM, Ruiz-Linares A, Tomfohrde J, Minch E, Kidd JR, Cavalli-Sforza LL, 1994. High resolution of human evolutionary trees with polymorphic microsatellites. Nature 368 : 455–457.
  25. Dieringer D, Schlotterer C, 2002. Microsatellite analyser (MSA): a platform independent analysis tool for large microsatellite data sets. Mol Ecol Notes 3 : 167–169.
  26. Felsenstein J, 1989. PHYLIP–Phylogeny Inference Package (Version 3.2). Cladistics 5 : 164–166.
  27. Page RD, 1996. TREEVIEW: An application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Comput Appl Biosci 12 : 357–358.
  28. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Rosenberg NA, Donnelly P, 2000. Association mapping in structured populations. Am J Hum Genet 67 : 170–181.
  29. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P, 2000. Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155 : 945–959.
  30. Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, Cann HM, Kidd KK, Zhivotovsky LA, Feldman MW, 2002. Genetic structure of human populations. Science 298 : 2381–2385.
  31. Choisy M, Franck P, Cornuet JM, 2004. Estimating admixture proportions with microsatellites: comparison of methods based on simulated data. Mol Ecol 13 : 955–968.
  32. Rosenberg NA, Burke T, Elo K, Feldman MW, Freidlin PJ, Groenen MA, Hillel J, Maki-Tanila A, Tixier-Boichard M, Vignal A, Wimmers K, Weigend S, 2001. Empirical evaluation of genetic clustering methods using multilocus genotypes from 20 chicken breeds. Genetics 159 : 699–713.
  33. Belkin JN, 1968. Mosquito studies (Diptera: Culicidae) VII. The Culicidae of New Zealand. Contrib Am Entomol Inst 3 : 1–182.
  34. van Riper C III, van Riper SG, Goff ML, Laird M, 1986. The epizootiology and ecological significance of malaria in Hawaiian land birds. Ecol Monogr 56 : 327–344.
  35. Gratz NG, Steffen R, Cocksedge W, 2000. Why aircraft disinfection? Bull World Health Organ 78 : 995–1004.
  36. Marks EN, 1972. Mosquitoes (Culicidae) in the changing Australian environment. Queensland Naturalist 20 : 101–116.
  37. Weinstein P, Laird M, Browne G, 1997. Exotic and Endemic Mosquitoes in New Zealand as Potential Arbovirus Vectors. Wellington, New Zealand. Ministry of Health, 16.
  38. Laird M, 1995. Background and findings of the 1993–1994 New Zealand mosquito survey. N Z Entomologist 18 : 77–90.
  39. Ross HH, 1964. The colonization of temperate North America by mosquitoes and man. Mosq News 24 : 103–118.
  40. Mattingly PF, 1963. The urban mosquito hazard today. Bull World Health Organ 29 : 135–139.
  41. Vinogradova EB, 2000. Culex pipiens pipiens Mosquitoes: Taxonomy, Distribution, Ecology, Physiology, Genetics, Applied Importance and Control. Moscow: Pensoft.
  42. Cornel AJ, McAbee RD, Rasgon J, Stanich MA, Scott TW, Coetzee M, 2003. Differences in extent of genetic introgression between sympatric Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in California and South Africa. J Med Entomol 40 : 36–51.
  43. Jayasekera N, Curtis CF, Zielke E, Kuhlow F, Jansen CG, Chelliah RV, 1980. The susceptibility of Liberian Culex quinquefasciatus to Wuchereria bancrofti in Sri Lanka. Trop Med Parasitol 31 : 507–511.
  44. Curtis CF, Kihamia CM, Ramji BD, 1981. Tests of susceptibility of Liberian Culex quinquefasciatus to Tanzanian Wuchereria bancrofti. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 75 : 736–739.
  45. Raymond M, Callaghan A, Fort P, Pasteur N, 1991. Worldwide migration of amplified insecticide resistance genes in mosquitoes. Nature 350 : 151–153.
  46. Besansky NJ, Krzywinski J, Lehmann T, Simard F, Kern M, Mukabayire O, Fontenille D, Toure Y, Sagnon N, 2003. Semi-permeable species boundaries between Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis: evidence from multilocus DNA sequence variation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100 : 10818–10823.
  47. Kolbe JJ, Glor RE, Rodriguez Schettino L, Lara AC, Larson A, Losos JB, 2004. Genetic variation increases during biological invasion by a Cuban lizard. Nature 431 : 177–181.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.284
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.284
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplemental tables

  • Received : 08 Jun 2005
  • Accepted : 28 Sep 2005

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error