1921
Volume 74, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Arboviruses from the families , , and are suspected to cause widespread morbidity in sub-Saharan African populations, but little research been done to document the burden and distribution of these pathogens. We tested serum samples from 256 Cameroonian adults from nine rural villages for the presence of Dengue-2 (DEN-2), West Nile (WN), Yellow fever (YF), Chikungunya (CHIK), O’nyong-nyong (ONN), Sindbis (SIN), and Tahyna (TAH) infection using standard plaque–reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Of these samples, 12.5% were DEN-2 positive, 6.6% were WN positive, 26.9% were YF positive, 46.5% were CHIK seropositive, 47.7% were ONN positive, 7.8% were SIN positive, and 36.3% were TAH positive. DEN-2, YF, and CHIK seroprevalence rates were lower among individuals living in dwellings with grass or thatched roofs versus corrugated tin and in villages isolated from urban centers. Seroprevalence rates of YF and CHIK increased with age. These results suggest that inter-epidemic arboviral infection is common in central African populations.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.1078
2006-06-01
2017-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/74/6/0741078.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.1078&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Gubler DJ, 2002. The global emergence/resurgence of arboviral diseases as public health problems. Arch Med Res 33 : 330–342.
  2. Mackenzie JS, Gubler DJ, Petersen LR, 2004. Emerging flaviviruses: the spread and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses. Nat Med 10 : S98–S109.
  3. Lundstrom JO, 1999. Mosquito-borne viruses in western Europe: a review. J Vector Ecol 24 : 1–39.
  4. Nash D, Mostashari F, Fine A, Miller J, O’Leary D, Murray K, Huang A, Rosenberg A, Greenberg A, Sherman M, Wong S, Layton M, 1999. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. N Engl J Med 344 : 1807–1814.
  5. Gubler DJ, 1998. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Clin Microbiol Rev 11 : 480–496.
  6. Mackenzie JS, Johansen CA, Ritchie SA, van den Hurk AF, Hall RA, 2002. Japanese encephalitis as an emerging virus: the emergence and spread of Japanese encephalitis virus in Australasia. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267 : 49–73.
  7. World Health Organization, 2002. Fact sheet N°117: Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  8. Sanders EJ, Rwaguma EB, Kawamata J, Kiwanuka N, Lutwama JJ, Ssengooba FP, Lamunu M, Najjemba R, Were WA, Bagambisa G, Campbell GL, 1999. O’nyong-nyong fever in south-central Uganda, 1996–1997: description of the epidemic and results of a household-based seroprevalence survey. J Infect Dis 180 : 1436–1443.
  9. Nur YA, Groen J, Heuvelmans H, Tuynman W, Copra C, Osterhaus AD, 1999. An outbreak of West Nile fever among migrants in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 : 885–888.
  10. Onyango CO, Grobbelaar AA, Gibson GV, Sang RC, Sow A, Swaneopel R, Burt FJ, 2004. Yellow fever outbreak, southern Sudan, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 1668–1670.
  11. Powers AM, Brault AC, Tesh RB, Weaver SC, 2000. Re-emergence of Chikungunya and O’nyong-nyong viruses: evidence for distinct geographical lineages and distant evolutionary relationships. J Gen Virol 81 : 471–479.
  12. Mutebi JP, Rijnbrand RC, Wang H, Ryman KD, Wang E, Fulop LD, Titball R, Barrett AD, 2004. Genetic relationships and evolution of genotypes of yellow fever virus and other members of the yellow fever virus group within the Flavivirus genus based on the 3′ noncoding region. J Virol 78 : 9652–9665.
  13. Norder H, Lundstrom JO, Kozuch O, Magnius LO, 1996. Genetic relatedness of Sindbis virus strains from Europe, Middle East, and Africa. Virology 222 : 440–445.
  14. Gould EA, Moss SR, Turner SL, 2004. Evolution and dispersal of encephalitic flaviviruses. Arch Virol Suppl 18 : 65–84.
  15. Pastorino B, Muyembe-Tamfum JJ, Bessaud M, Tock F, Tolou H, Durand JP, Peyrefitte CN, 2004. Epidemic resurgence of Chikungunya virus in democratic Republic of the Congo: identification of a new central African strain. J Med Virol 74 : 277–282.
  16. Watts DM, el Tigani A, Botros BA, Salib AW, Olson JG, McCarthy M, Ksiazek TG, 1994. Arthropod-borne viral infections associated with a fever outbreak in the northern province of Sudan. J Trop Med Hyg 97 : 228–230.
  17. Vicens R, Robert V, Pignon D, Zeller H, Ghipponi PM, Digoutte JP, 1993. Yellow fever epidemic in the extreme North of Cameroon in 1990: first yellow fever virus isolation in Cameroon. Bull World Health Organ 71 : 173–176.
  18. Carey DE, 1971. Chikungunya and dengue: a case of mistaken identity? J Hist Med Allied Sci 26 : 243–262.
  19. Bonnet S, Gouagna LC, Paul RE, Safeukui I, Meunier JY, Boudin C, 2003. Estimation of malaria transmission from humans to mosquitoes in two neighbouring villages in south Cameroon: evaluation and comparison of several indices. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97 : 53–59.
  20. Rickenbach A, Le Gonidec G, Ravisse P, 1976. Incidence of Arbovirus isolated from mosquitoes in the forest region of South Cameroun, region of Yaounde. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 69 : 372–381.
  21. Fontenille D, Toto JC, 2001. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), a potential new Dengue vector in southern Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 1066–1067.
  22. Robert V, Le Goff G, Toto JC, Mulder L, Fondjo E, Manga L, Carnevale P, 1993. Anthropophilic mosquitoes and malaria transmission at Edea, Cameroon. Trop Med Parasitol 44 : 14–18.
  23. Gubler DJ, 2003. Aedes albopictus in Africa. Lancet Infect Dis 3 : 751–752.
  24. Kanesathasan N, Chang GJ, Smoak BL, Magill A, Burrous MJ, Hoke CH Jr, 1998. Molecular and epidemiologic analysis of dengue virus isolates from Somalia. Emerg Infect Dis 4 : 299–303.
  25. Saluzzo JF, Cornet M, Castagnet P, Rey C, Digoutte JP, 1986. Isolation of dengue 2 and dengue 4 viruses from patients in Senegal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 80 : 5.
  26. Carey DE, Causey OR, Reddy S, Cooke AR, 1971. Dengue viruses from febrile patients in Nigeria, 1964–68. Lancet 1 : 105–106.
  27. Rodier GR, Gubler DJ, Cope SE, Cropp CB, Soliman AK, Polycarpe D, Abdourhaman MA, Parra JP, Maslin J, Arthur RR, 1996. Epidemic dengue 2 in the city of Djibouti 1991–1992. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 : 237–240.
  28. Johnson BK, Ocheng D, Gichogo A, Okiro M, Libondo D, Kinyanjui P, Tukei PM, 1982. Epidemic dengue fever caused by dengue type 2 virus in Kenya: preliminary results of human virological and serological studies. East Afr Med J 59 : 781–784.
  29. Krippner R, von Laer G, 2002. First confirmed dengue-1 fever cases reported from Cameroon. J Travel Med 9 : 273–274.
  30. Mathiot CC, Gonzalez JP, Georges AJ, 1988. Current problems of arboviruses in central Africa. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 81 : 396–401.
  31. Ndip LM, Bouyer DH, Travassos Da Rosa APA, Titanji VPK, Tesh RB, Walker DH, 2004. Acute spotted fever rickettsiosis among febrile patients, Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 432–437.
  32. Lindsey HS, Calisher CH, Mathews JH, 1976. Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. J Clin Microbiol 4 : 503–510.
  33. Burke DS, Ramsburg HH, Edelman R, 1977. Persistence in humans of antibody to subtypes of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus after immunization with attenuated (TC-83) VEE virus vaccine. J Infect Dis 136 : 354–359.
  34. Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RS, 1989. Arboviruses. Schmidt NJ, Emmons RW, eds. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections. Sixth Edition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 797–856.
  35. Huang CY-H, Butrapet B, Pierro DJ, Chang GT, Hunt AR, Bhamarapravati N, Gubler DJ, Kinney RM, 2000. Chimeric dengue type 2 (vaccine strain PDK-53)/dengue Type 1 virus as a potential candidate dengue type 1 virus vaccine. J Virol 74 : 3020–3028.
  36. Blackburn NK, Besselaar TG, Gibson G, 1995. Antigenic relationship between chikungunya virus strains and o’nyong nyong virus using monoclonal antibodies. Res Virol 146 : 69–73.
  37. Khan AH, Morita K, Parquet Md MC, Hasebe F, Mathenge EG, Igarashi A, 2002. Complete nucleotide sequence of chikungunya virus and evidence for an internal polyadenylation site. J Gen Virol 83 : 3075–3084.
  38. Lanciotti RS, Ludwig ML, Rwaguma EB, Lutwama JJ, Kram TM, Karabatsos N, Cropp BC, Miller BR, 1998. Emergence of epidemic O’nyong-nyong fever in Uganda after a 35-year absence: genetic characterization of the virus. Virology 252 : 258–268.
  39. Chanas AC, Hubalek Z, Johnson BK, Simpson DI, 1979. A comparative study of O’nyong nyong virus with Chikungunya virus and plaque variants. Arch Virol 59 : 231–238.
  40. Lee E, Stocks C, Lobigs P, Hislop A, Straub J, Marshall I, Weir R, Dalgarno L, 1997. Nucleotide sequence of the Barmah Forest virus genome. Virology 227 : 509–514.
  41. Gubler DJ, Sather G, 1990. Laboratory diagnosis of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Yellow Fever and Dengue, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, May 15–19, 1988.
  42. Siqueira JB Jr, Martelli CM, Coelho GE, Simplicio AC, Hatch DL, 2005. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, Brazil, 1981–2002. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 48–53.
  43. Moncayo AC, Fernandez Z, Ortiz D, Diallo M, Sall A, Hartman S, Davis CT, Coffey L, Mathiot CC, Tesh RB, Weaver SC, 2004. Dengue emergence and adaptation to peridomestic mosquitoes. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 1790–1796.
  44. Buckley A, Dawson A, Moss SR, Hinsley SA, Bellamy PE, Gould EA, 2003. Serological evidence of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus infection of birds in the UK. J Gen Virol 84 : 2807–2817.
  45. Komar N, Langevin S, Hinten S, Nemeth N, Edwards E, Hettler D, Davis B, Bowen R, Bunning M, 2003. Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 311–322.
  46. McIntosh BM, Dickinson DB, McGillivray GM, 1969. Ecological studies on Sindbis and West Nile viruses in South Africa. V. The response of birds to inoculation of virus. S Afr J Med Sci 34 : 77–82.
  47. van der Meulen KM, Pensaert MB, Nauwynck HJ, 2005. West Nile virus in the vertebrate world. Arch Virol 150 : 637–657.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.1078
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.1078
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Erratum

  • Received : 16 Nov 2005
  • Accepted : 03 Feb 2006

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error