Volume 73, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


The astigmatid mite is the causative agent of scabies, a highly infectious parasitic disease of the skin. Although the mite causes marked hypersensitivity reactions, particularly in crusted (severe) scabies, little is known about the specific scabies mite molecules involved in such immunologic responses. We have identified six genes encoding scabies mite homologues of mu and delta-like glutathione -transferases (GSTs) as well as novel house dust mite GSTs. A mu class GST was subcloned into a prokaryotic expression system. The purified recombinant protein rSsGST01 reacted strongly with IgE and IgG4 in sera from crusted scabies patients. This response was not observed with control antigens or with ordinary scabies and uninfested patient sera. In addition, the specific IgE response to rSsGST01 did not correlate with the total IgE level of the patient. These results suggest that GST may play a role in the pathophysiology associated with crusted scabies.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Brook I, 1995. Microbiology of secondary bacterial infection in scabies lesions. J Clin Microbiol 33 : 2139–2140. [Google Scholar]
  2. Currie BJ, Carapetis J, 2000. Skin infections and infestations in Aboriginal communities in northern Australia Australas J Dermatol 41 : 139–143. [Google Scholar]
  3. McDonald M, Currie BJ, Carapetis JR, 2004. Acute rheumatic fever: a chink in the chain that links the heart to the throat? Lancet Infect Dis 4 : 240–245. [Google Scholar]
  4. Taplin D, Meinking TL, Chen JA, Sanchez R, 1990. Comparison of crotamiton 10% cream (eurax) and permethrin 5% cream (elimite) for the treatment of scabies in children. Pediatr Dermatol 7 : 67–73. [Google Scholar]
  5. Roberts LJ, Huffam S, Walton S, Currie B, 2005. Crusted scabies: clinical and immunological findings in seventy-eight patients and a review of the literature. J Infect 50 : 375–381. [Google Scholar]
  6. Mellanby K, 1944. The development of symptoms, parasitic infection and immunity in human scabies. Parasitology 35 : 197–206. [Google Scholar]
  7. Arlian LG, Morgan MS, Vyszenski-Moher DL, Stemmer BL, 1994. Sarcoptes scabiei: The circulating antibody response and induced immunity to scabies. Exp Parasitol 78 : 37–50. [Google Scholar]
  8. Arlian LG, Rapp CM, Vyszenski-Moher DL, Morgan MS, 1994. Sarcoptes scabiei: Histopathological changes associated with acquisition and expression of host immunity to scabies. Exp Parasitol 78 : 51–63. [Google Scholar]
  9. Arlian LG, Morgan MS, Estes SA, Walton SF, Kemp DJ, Currie BJ, 2004. Circulating IgE in patients with ordinary and crusted scabies. J Med Entomol 41 : 74–77. [Google Scholar]
  10. Mattsson JG, Ljunggren EL, Bergstrom K, 2001. Paramyosin from the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei: cDNA cloning and heterologous expression. Parasitology 122 : 555–562. [Google Scholar]
  11. Fischer K, Holt DC, Harumal P, Currie BJ, Walton SF, Kemp DJ, 2003. Generation and characterisation of cDNA clones from Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis for an expressed sequence tag library: identification of homologues of house dust mite allergens. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 61–64. [Google Scholar]
  12. Harumal P, Morgan MS, Walton SF, Holt DC, Rode J, Arlian LG, Currie BJ, Kemp DJ, 2003. Identification of a homologue of a house dust mite allergen in a cDNA library from Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and evaluation of its vaccine potential in a rabbit/S. scabiei var. canis model. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 54–60. [Google Scholar]
  13. Pettersson EU, Ljunggren EL, Morrison DA, Mattsson JG, 2005. Functional analysis and localisation of a delta-class glutathione S-transferase from Sarcoptes scabiei. Int J Parasitol 35 : 39–48. [Google Scholar]
  14. Holt DC, Fischer K, Allen GE, Wilson D, Wilson P, Slade R, Currie BJ, Walton SF, Kemp DJ, 2003. Mechanisms for a novel immune evasion strategy in the scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei: A multigene family of inactivated serine proteases. J Invest Dermatol 121 : 1419–1424. [Google Scholar]
  15. Holt DC, Fischer K, Pizzutto SJ, Currie BJ, Walton SF, Kemp DJ, 2004. A multigene family of inactivated cysteine proteases in Sarcoptes scabiei. J Invest Dermatol 123 : 240–241. [Google Scholar]
  16. O’Neill GM, Donovan GR, Baldo BA, 1994. Cloning and characterization of a major allergen of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, homologous with glutathione S-transferase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1219 : 521–528. [Google Scholar]
  17. Rosa de Lima MF, Sanchez Ferreira CA, Joaquim de Freitas DR, Valenzuela JG, Masuda A, 2002. Cloning and partial characterization of a Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) glutathione S-transferase. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 32 : 747–754. [Google Scholar]
  18. Sommer A, Rickert R, Fischer P, Steinhart H, Walter RD, Lie-bau E, 2003. A dominant role for extracellular glutathione S-transferase from Onchocerca volvulus is the production of prostaglandin D2. Infect Immun 71 : 3603–3606. [Google Scholar]
  19. Pickett CB, Lu AY, 1989. Glutathione S-transferases: gene structure, regulation, and biological function. Annu Rev Biochem 58 : 743–764. [Google Scholar]
  20. Armstrong RN, 1991. Glutathione S-transferases: reaction mechanism, structure, and function. Chem Res Toxicol 4 : 131–140. [Google Scholar]
  21. Wilce MC, Parker MW, 1994. Structure and function of glutathione S-transferases. Biochim Biophys Acta 1205 : 1–18. [Google Scholar]
  22. Hayes JD, Pulford DJ, 1995. The glutathione S-transferase supergene family: regulation of GST and the contribution of the isoenzymes to cancer chemoprotection and drug resistance. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 30 : 445–600. [Google Scholar]
  23. Favaloro B, Tamburro A, Angelucci S, Luca AD, Melino S, di Ilio C, Rotilio D, 1998. Molecular cloning, expression and site-directed mutagenesis of glutathione S-transferase from Ochrobactrum anthropi. Biochem J 335 : 573–579. [Google Scholar]
  24. Sheehan D, Meade G, Foley VM, Dowd CA, 2001. Structure, function and evolution of glutathione transferases: implications for classification of non-mammalian members of an ancient enzyme superfamily. Biochem J 360 : 1–16. [Google Scholar]
  25. Arruda LK, Vailes LD, Platts-Mills TA, Hayden ML, Chapman MD, 1997. Induction of IgE antibody responses by glutathione S-transferase from the German cockroach (Blattella germanica). J Biol Chem 272 : 20907–20912. [Google Scholar]
  26. O’Neill GM, Donovan GR, Baldo BA, 1995. Glutathione S-transferase a major allergen of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Immunol Lett 48 : 103–107. [Google Scholar]
  27. Spithill TW, Piedrafita D, Smooker PM, 1997. Immunological approaches for the control of fasciolosis. Int J Parasitol 27 : 1221–1235. [Google Scholar]
  28. Riveau G, Poulain-Godefroy OP, Dupre L, Remoue F, Mielcarek N, Locht C, Capron A, 1998. Glutathione S-transferases of 28kDa as major vaccine candidates against schistosomiasis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 93 (Suppl 1): 87–94. [Google Scholar]
  29. Sexton JL, Wilce MC, Colin T, Wijffels GL, Salvatore L, Feil S, Parker MW, Spithill TW, Morrison CA, 1994. Vaccination of sheep against Fasciola hepatica with glutathione S-transferase. Identification and mapping of antibody epitopes on a three-dimensional model of the antigen. J Immunol 152 : 1861–1872. [Google Scholar]
  30. He H, Chen AC, Davey RB, Ivie GW, George JE, 1999. Characterization and molecular cloning of a glutathione S-transferase gene from the tick, Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Insect Biochem Mol Biol 29 : 737–743. [Google Scholar]
  31. Lee AJ, Huntley J, Van den Broek A, Coates D, Isaac RE, 2002. Expression and characterisation of a Psoroptes ovis glutathione S-transferase. Vet Parasitol 105 : 49–63. [Google Scholar]
  32. Fischer K, Holt DC, Wilson P, Davis J, Hewitt V, Johnson M, McGrath A, Currie BJ, Walton SF, Kemp DJ, 2003. Normalization of a cDNA library cloned in λZAP by a long PCR and cDNA reassociation procedure. Biotechniques 34 : 250–254. [Google Scholar]
  33. Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ, 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215 : 403–410. [Google Scholar]
  34. Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ, 1994. CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22 : 4673–4680. [Google Scholar]
  35. Felsenstein J, 1989. PHYLIP–Phylogeny Inference Package (Version 3.2). Cladistics 5 : 164–166. [Google Scholar]
  36. Towbin H, Staehelin T, Gordon J, 1979. Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 76 : 4350–4354. [Google Scholar]
  37. Burnette W, 1981. “Western blotting”: Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel to unmodified nitrocellulose and radiographic detection with antibody and radioiodinated protein A. Anal Biochem 112 : 195–203. [Google Scholar]
  38. Allocati N, Casalone E, Masulli M, Ceccarelli I, Carletti E, Parker MW, Di Ilio C, 1999. Functional analysis of the evolutionarily conserved proline 53 residue in Proteus mirabilis glutathione transferase B1-1. FEBS Lett 445 : 347–350. [Google Scholar]
  39. Walton SF, Holt DC, Currie BJ, Kemp DJ, 2004. Scabies: new future for a neglected disease. Adv Parasitol 57 : 309–376. [Google Scholar]
  40. Ding Y, Ortelli F, Rossiter LC, Hemingway J, Ranson H, 2003. The Anopheles gambiae glutathione transferase supergene family: annotation, phylogeny and expression profiles. BMC Genomics 4 : 35. [Google Scholar]
  41. Gough L, Schulz O, Sewell HF, Shakib F, 1999. The cysteine protease activity of the major dust mite allergen Der p 1 selectively enhances the immunoglobulin E antibody response. J Exp Med 190 : 1897–1902. [Google Scholar]
  42. Yasuhara T, Takai T, Yuuki T, Okudaira H, Okumura Y, 2001. Biologically active recombinant forms of a major house dust mite group 1 allergen Der f 1 with full activities of both cysteine protease and IgE binding. Clin Exp Allergy 31 : 116–124. [Google Scholar]
  43. Stevenson WJ, Hughes KL, 1988. Synopsis of Zoonoses in Australia. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Community Services.
  44. Capron A, Dessaint JP, Capron M, Pierce RJ, 1992. Vaccine strategies against schistosomiasis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 87 (Suppl 5): 1–9. [Google Scholar]
  45. Garraud O, Perraut R, Riveau F, Nutman T, 2003. Class and subclass selection in parasite-specific antibody responses. Trends Parasitol 19 : 300–304. [Google Scholar]
  46. Aalberse RC, Van Milligen F, Tan KY, Stapel SO, 1993. Allergen-specific IgG4 in atopic disease. Allergy 48 : 559–569. [Google Scholar]
  47. Stern D, Eder W, Tebow G, Lohman IC, Soprana E, Braun-Fahrlander C, Riedler J, Nowak D, Von Mutiust E, Halonen M, Vercelli D, 2004. Rethinking Th2 antibody responses and allergic sensitization. Novartis Found Symp 257 : 25–37. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 16 Nov 2004
  • Accepted : 30 Apr 2005

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error