1921
Volume 73, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

To assess clinical findings associated with infection, 192 school children in a filariasis-endemic area of Haiti underwent physical and ultrasonographic examinations and testing for circulating filarial antigen (CFA). The CFA-positive children were more likely than CFA-negative children to have severe interdigital lesions (≥1 macerated lesion with involvement of ≥4 toe web spaces) ( < 0.0001) and inguinal ( = 0.003) or crural ( = 0.004) lymph node pathology. In multivariate analysis, CFA positivity remained a significant predictor for severe interdigital lesions ( = 0.006) and inguinal lymph node pathology ( = 0.05). Ultrasound detected adult worms and lymphangectasia (diameter = 2.0–4.0 mm) in 11 (10.8%) CFA-positive children. Among CFA-positive children, ultrasonographic detection of adult worms was associated with inguinal ( = 0.01) and crural ( = 0.004) lymph node pathology and advanced pubertal stage (sexual maturity rating = 3–5) ( = 0.02). This is the first study to associate interdigital lesions with filarial infection in children.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.759
2005-10-01
2017-09-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/73/4/0730759.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.759&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Seim AA, Dreyer G, Addiss DG, 1999. Controlling morbidity and interrupting transmission: twin pillars of lymphatic filariasis elimination. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 32 : 325–328.
  2. World Health Organization, 1995. Bridging the Gaps. The World Health Report. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  3. Anonymous, 1997. Lymphatic filariasis in the Americas. Epidemiol Bull 18 : 6–7.
  4. Ottesen EA, Duke BOL, Karam M, Behbehani K, 1997. Strategies and tools for the control/elimination of lymphatic filariasis. Bull World Health Organ 75 : 491–503.
  5. Das PK, Srividya A, Pani SP, Ramaiah KD, Vanamail P, Dhanda V, 1994. Cumulative exposure and its relationship with chronic filarial disease in Bancroftian filariasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 25 : 516–521.
  6. Pani SP, Krishnamoorthy K, Rao AS, Prathiba J, 1990. Clinical manifestations in malayian filariasis infection with special reference to lymphoedema grading. Indian J Med Res 91 : 200–207.
  7. Dreyer G, Medeiros Z, Netto MJ, Leal NC, de Castro LG, Piessens WF, 1999. Acute attacks in the extremities of persons living in an area endemic for Bancroftian filariasis: differentiation of two syndromes. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93 : 413–417.
  8. Shenoy RK, Sandhya K, Suma TK, Kumaraswami V, 1995. A preliminary study of filariasis related acute lymphangitis with special reference to precipitating factors and treatment modalities. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 26 : 301–305.
  9. Suma TK, Shenoy RK, Varghese J, Kuttikkal VV, Kumaraswami V, 1997. Estimation of ASO titer as an indicator of streptococcal infection precipitating acute adenolymphangitis in Brugian lymphatic filariasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28 : 826–830.
  10. Shenoy RK, Suma TK, Rajan K, Kumaraswami V, 1998. Prevention of acute adenolymphangitis in Brugian filariasis: comparison of the efficacy of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine, each combined with local treatment of the affected limb. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92 : 587–594.
  11. Shenoy RK, Kumaraswami V, Suma TK, Rajan K, Radhakuttyamma G, 1999. A double-blind placebo controlled study of the efficacy of oral penicillin, diethylcarbamazine or local treatment of the affected limb in preventing acute adenolymphangitis in lymphedema caused by Brugian filariasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 93 : 367–377.
  12. Suma TK, Shenoy RK, Kumaraswami V, 2002. Efficacy and sustainability of a footcare programme in preventing acute attacks of adenolymphangitis in Brugian filariasis. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 763–766.
  13. Ramaiah KD, Vijay Kumar KN, 2000. Effect of lymphatic filariasis on school children. Acta Trop 76 : 197–199.
  14. Lammie PJ, Reiss MD, Dimock KA, Streit TG, Roberts JM, Eberhard ML, 1998. Longitudinal analysis of the development of filarial infection and antifilarial immunity in a cohort of Haitian children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 217–221.
  15. Jungmann P, Figueredo-Silva J, Dreyer G, 1991. Bancroftian lymphadenopathy: a histopathologic study of fifty-eight cases from northeastern Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45 : 325–331.
  16. Dreyer G, Figueredo-Silva J, Carvalho K, Amaral F, Ottesen EA, 2001. Lymphatic filariasis in children: adenopathy and its evolution in two young girls. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65 : 204–207.
  17. Fox LM, Furness BW, Haser JK, Brissau JM, Louis-Charles J, Wilson SF, Addiss DG, Lammie PJ, Beach MJ, 2005. Ultrasonographic examination of Haitian children with lymphatic filariasis: a longitudinal assessment in the context of antifilarial drug treatment. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 : 642–648.
  18. Amaral F, Dreyer G, Figueredo-Silva J, Noroes J, Cavalcanti A, Samico SC, Santos A, Coutinho A, 1994. Live adult worms detected by ultrasonography in human Bancroftian filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 : 753–757.
  19. Chaubal NG, Pradhan GM, Chaubal JN, Ramani SK, 2003. Dance of live adult filarial worms is a reliable sign of scrotal filarial infection. J Ultrasound Med 22 : 765–769.
  20. Dreyer G, Noroes J, Addiss D, Santos A, Medeiros Z, Figueredo-Silva J, 1999. Bancroftian filariasis in a paediatric population: an ultrasonographic study. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93 : 633–636.
  21. Lammie PJ, Hitch WL, Walker EM, Hightower AW, Eberhard ML, 1998. Maternal filarial infection as risk factor for infection in children. Lancet 337 : 1005–1006.
  22. Lammie PJ, Hightower AW, Eberhard ML, 1994. The age-specific prevalence of antigenemia in a Wuchereria bancrofti-exposed population. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 : 348–355.
  23. Weil GJ, Lammie PJ, Weiss N, 1997. The ICT filariasis test: a rapid-format antigen test for the diagnosis of Bancroftian filariasis. Parasitol Today 13 : 401–404.
  24. Dorlands Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 2003. 30th edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier.
  25. Gray’s Anatomic Basis of Medicine and Surgery, 1995. 38th edition. London: Churchill Livingstone.
  26. Marshall WA, Tanner JM, 1968. Growth and physiologic development during adolescence. Annu Rev Med 19 : 283–300.
  27. Day MR, Day RD, Harkless LB, 1996. Cellulitis secondary to web space dermatophytosis. Clin Podiatr Med Surg 13 : 759–766.
  28. Semel JD, Goldin H, 1996. Association of athlete’s foot with cellulites of the lower extremities: diagnostic value of bacterial cultures of ipsilateral interdigital space samples. Clin Infect Dis 23 : 1162–1164.
  29. Burri H, Loutan L, Kumaraswami V, Vijayasekaran V, 1996. Skin changes in chronic lymphatic filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 : 671–674.
  30. King CL, Nutman TB, 1991. Regulation of the immune response in lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Immunol Today 12 : A54–A58.
  31. Olszewski WL, Jamal S, Manokaran G, Pani S, Kumaraswami V, Kubicka U, Lukomska B, Dworczynski A, Swoboda E, Meisel-Mikolajczyk F, 1997. Bacteriologic studies of skin, tissue fluid, lymph, and lymph nodes in patients with filarial lymphedema. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57 : 7–15.
  32. Baird JB, Charles JL, Streit TG, Roberts JM, Addiss DG, Lammie PJ, 2002. Reactivity to bacterial, fungal, and parasite antigens in patients with lymphedema and elephantiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 163–169.
  33. de Androde MF, Nishinari K, Puech-Leao P, 1998. Intertrigo in patients with lower limb lymphedema. Clinical and laboratory correlation. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo 53 : 3–5.
  34. Talwar P, Kumar B, Ayyagiri A, Kaur S, 1985. Prevalence of bacteria and fungi in athlete’s foot of varying severity and response to topical antibacterial and antifungal therapies. Sabouraudia 23 : 303–312.
  35. Kates SG, Nordstrom KM, McGinley KJ, Leyden JJ, 1990. Microbial ecology of interdigital infections of toe web spaces. J Am Acad Dermatol 22 : 578–582.
  36. Gentles JG, Holmes JG, 1957. Foot ringworm in coal miners. Br J Indian Med 14 : 22–29.
  37. Leyden JJ, Kligman AM, 1978. Interdigital athlete’s foot: the interaction of dermatophytes and resident bacteria. Arch Dermatol 114 : 1466–1472.
  38. Aste N, Atzori L, Zucca M, Pau M, Biggio P, 2001. Gram-negative bacterial toe web infection: a study of 123 cases from the district of Calgari, Italy. J Am Acad Dermatol 45 : 537–541.
  39. Odom RB, James WD, Berger TG, 2000. Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. Ninth edition. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 328.
  40. Allen AM, Taplin D, 1973. Tropical immersion foot. Lancet 2 : 1185–1189.
  41. Oyeka CA, Ugwu LO, 2002. Fungal flora of human toe webs. Mycoses 45 : 488–491.
  42. Lestringant GG, Saarinen KA, Frossard PM, Bener A, Ameen AM, 2001. Etiology of toe-web disease in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates: bacteriological and mycological studies. East Mediterr Health J 7 : 38–45.
  43. Dondero TJ, Mullin SW, Balasingam S, 1972. Early clinical manifestations in filariasis due to Brugia malayi: observations on experimental infections in man. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 3 : 569–575.
  44. King BG, 1944. Early filariasis diagnosis and clinical findings: a report of 268 cases in American troops. Am J Trop Med 24 : 285–298.
  45. Dreyer G, Brandao AC, Amaral F, Medeiros Z, Addiss D, 1996. Detection by ultrasound of living adult Wuchereria bancrofti in the female breast. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 91 : 95–96.
  46. Suresh S, Kumaraswami V, Suresh I, Rajesh K, Suguna G, Vijayasekaran V, Ruckmani A, Rajamanickam MG, 1997. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of subclinical filariasis. J Ultrasound Med. 16 : 45–49.
  47. Dreyer G, Addiss DG, Dreyer P, Noroes J, 2002. Basic Lymphedema Management: Treatment and Prevention of Problems Associated with Lymphatic filariasis. Teddington, United Kingdom: Hollis Publishing Company, 23–52.
  48. Addiss DG, Mackenzie C, 2004. LF disease: clinical management. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 (Suppl): 12–15.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.759
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.759
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 12 Apr 2005
  • Accepted : 16 May 2005

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error