Volume 73, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


A case-control study was conducted to understand the risk factors associated with kala-azar in disease-endemic areas of Bihar, India. A total of 134 kala-azar cases treated at the Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences in Patna and 406 healthy controls selected randomly from the neighborhoods of cases in their native villages were included in the study. Univariate analysis showed that education, a history of other diseases in the previous year, a history of kala-azar in the family, type of walls in houses, presence of a granary inside houses, presence of vegetation around houses, bamboo trees near houses, and irregular spraying around houses with DDT were risk factors. Multivariate analysis showed that a history of other diseases in the previous year (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, = 0.002), a history of kala-azar in the family (OR = 1.8, = 0.03), mud-plastered walls in houses, (OR = 2.4, = 0.0001], a granary inside houses (OR = 4.3, = 0.0001), presence of bamboo trees around houses (OR = 2.3, = 0.001), and houses not sprayed with DDT in the past six months (OR = 3.4, = 0.0001) were significant risk factors for kala-azar. These results will be useful in developing kala-azar control programs for identifying intervention strategies such as better housing, regular and proper insecticide spraying, and promoting health awareness to the community residing in disease-endemic areas for reducing transmission and incidence of this disease.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Bora D, Singh J, Bhattacharjee J, Kureel V, Singh S, Sharma RS, 1994. An estimate of Kala-azar in 1991 in district Vaishali and Bihar. J Commun Dis 26 : 120–122. [Google Scholar]
  2. Thakur CP, 2000. Socio-economies of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar (India). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 : 156–157. [Google Scholar]
  3. Zijlstra EE, Musa AM, Khalil EA, el-Hassan IM, el-Hassan AM, 2003. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Lancet Infect Dis 3 : 87–98. [Google Scholar]
  4. Bora D, 1999. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in India. Natl Med J India 12 : 62–68. [Google Scholar]
  5. Sharma MC, Gupta AK, Das VN, Verma N, Kumar N, Saran R, Kar SK, 2000. Leishmania donovani in blood smears of asymptomatic persons. Acta Trop 76 : 195–196. [Google Scholar]
  6. Dhiman RC, Sen AB, 1991. Epidemiology of Kala-azar in rural Bihar (India) using village as a component unit of study. Indian J Med Res 93 : 155–160. [Google Scholar]
  7. Dinesh DS, Dhiman RC, Ranjan A, Prasad SK, Kishore K, Kar SK, 1994. The cross-sectional epidemiological studies on Kala-azar around Patna City in Bihar. Indian J Parasitol 18 : 143–147. [Google Scholar]
  8. Napier LE, 1926. An epidemiological consideration of the transmission of Kala-azar in India. India Med Res Memoir 4 : 219–265. [Google Scholar]
  9. Kirkwood BR, 1988. Calculation of required sample size. Essential of Medical Statistics. First edition. Oxford: United Kingdom: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 191–200.
  10. Hati AK, 1983. Current status of leishmaniasis—vector biology. Proceedings of the Indo-UK Workshop on Leishmaniasis, 84–91. [Google Scholar]
  11. Kumar V, Kesari S, Sinha NK, Palit A, Ranjan A, Kishore K, 1995. Field trial of an ecological approach for the control of Phlebotomus argentipes using mud and lime plaster. Indian J Med Res 101 : 154–156. [Google Scholar]
  12. Napier LE, Das Gupta CP, 1931. An epidemiological investigation of kala-azar in rural area in Bengal. Indian J Med Res 19 : 205–241. [Google Scholar]
  13. Bern C, Joshi AB, Jha SN, Das ML, Hightower A, Thakur GD, Bista MB, 2000. Factors associated with visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal: bed-net use is strongly protective. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63 : 184–188. [Google Scholar]
  14. Dinesh DS, Dhiman RC, 1991. Plant sources of fructose to sand-flies, particularly Phlebotomus argentipes in nature. J Commun Dis 23 : 160–161. [Google Scholar]
  15. Dhiman RC, Dinesh DS, 1992. An experimental study to find out the source of fructose to sand flies. Indian J Parasitol 16 : 159–160. [Google Scholar]
  16. Lal CS, Kumar V, Ranjan A, Das VNR, Kumar N, Kishore K, Bhattacharya SK, 2004. Evaluation of cholinesterase level in an endemic population exposed to malathion suspension formulation as a vector control measure. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 99 : 219–221. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 May 2004
  • Accepted : 31 Dec 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error