Volume 73, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


We report a case of acute, self-resolving leptospirosis presenting in a HIV-positive patient from the Peruvian Amazon. The patient presented with an undifferentiated acute febrile illness that resolved without treatment, diagnosed retrospectively as leptospirosis by serology and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Five months later, he was admitted because of a febrile illness with jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, peripheral edema, and oral candidiasis. Because of the clinical suspicion of AIDS, stored sera of the previous admission were tested, and HIV seropositivity was confirmed, proving that the condition was present at the first admission. Acute leptospirosis in HIV coinfection is not inevitably severe, and there is probably a wide variation in clinical manifestations similar to what occurs in immuno-competent hosts.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Bharti AR, Nally JE, Ricaldi JN, Matthias MA, Diaz MM, Lovett MA, Levett PN, Gilman RH, Willig MR, Gotuzzo E, Vinetz JM, Peru-United States Leptospirosis Consortium, 2003. Leptospirosis: a zoonotic disease of global importance. Lancet Infect Dis 12 : 757–771.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Segura ER, Ganoza CA, Campos K, Ricaldi JN, Torres S, Silva H, Cespedes MJ, Matthias MA, Swancutt MA, Lopez LR, Gotuzzo E, Guerra H, Gilman RH, Vinetz JM, 2005. Clinical spectrum of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis in a region of endemicity, with quantification of leptospiral burden. Clin Infect Dis 40 : 343–351.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Smythe LD, Smith IL, Smith GA, 2002. A quantitative PCR (TaqMan) assay for pathogenic Leptospira spp. BMC Infect Dis 1 : 13. Available at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/2/13. Accessed Oct 10, 2004.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Vinetz JM, Glass GE, Flexner CE, Mueller P, Kaslow DC, 1996. Sporadic urban leptospirosis. Ann Intern Med 10 : 794–798.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Jones S, Kim T, 2001. Fulminant leptospirosis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection: case report and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 33 : E31–E33.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Zylberberg H, Nebut M, Hagege H, Geslin P, Chousterman M, 1995. Severe leptospirosis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ann Med Interne (Paris) 146 : 522.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Neves Ede S, Pereira MM, Galhardo MC, Caroli A, Andrade J, Morgado MG, Mendes RP, 1994. Leptospirosis patient with AIDS: the first case reported. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 27 : 39–42.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. da Silva MV, Batista L, Camargo ED, Leitao PA, Szalkay VG, Rosenthal C, Vaz AJ, de Souza AM, 1990. Leptospirosis in patients with anti-HIV antibodies: report of 2 cases. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 23 : 229–231.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Shih TA, Roederer M, Nussenzweig MC, 2002. Role of antigen receptor affinity in T cell-independent antibody responses in vivo. Nature Immunol 3 : 399–406.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Lynn WA, Lightman S, 2004. Syphilis and HIV; a dangerous combination. Lancet Infect Dis 4 : 456–466.
    [Google Scholar]
  • Received : 08 Dec 2004
  • Accepted : 22 Jan 2005
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error