1921
Volume 73, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Use of an insecticide-treated net (ITN) is now the central focus for the Roll Back Malaria campaign, and disease-endemic countries have embarked on large-scale ITN distribution programs. We assessed the impact of an ITN social marketing program on clinical malaria in children less than five years of age. A case-control study was undertaken at Ndirande Health Center in the peri-urban area of the city of Blantyre, Malawi. Cases were defined by an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C or a history of fever within the last 48 hours and a positive blood smear for The individual effectiveness of ITN use was 40% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10–60%) when cases were compared with clinic controls and 50% (95% CI = 0–60%) in comparison with community controls. With ITN coverage of 42%, the community effectiveness of this program was estimated to range from 17% to 21%. This represents 1,480 malaria cases averted by the intervention in a population of 15,000 children. Our results show that the benefits of ITN social marketing programs in reducing malaria are enormous. Targeting the poor could increase those benefits.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.622
2005-09-01
2017-09-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/73/3/0730622.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.622&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Lengeler C, 2000. Insecticide-treated bednets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2 : CD000363.
  2. Hawley WA, Phillips-Howard PA, ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Vulule JM, Ombok M, Nahlen BL, Gimnig JE, Kariuki SK, Kolczak MS, Hightower AW, 2003. Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 (Suppl): 121–127.
  3. World Health Organization, 2003. Africa Malaria Report. Geneva: World Health Organization, 26–27.
  4. Chandre F, Darriet F, Manguin S, Brengues C, Carnevale P, Guillet P, 1999. Pyrethroid cross resistance spectrum among populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Côte d’Ivoire. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15 : 53–59.
  5. Lengeler C, Snow RW, 1996. From efficacy to effectiveness: insecticide-treated bednets in Africa. Bull World Health Organ 74 : 325–332.
  6. D’Alessandro U, Olaleye B, Langerock P, Bennett S, Cham K, Cham B, Greenwood BM, 1997. The Gambian National Impregnated Bed Net Programme: evaluation of effectiveness by means of case-control studies. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 : 638–642.
  7. Rowland M, Webster J, Saleh P, Chandramohan D, Freeman T, Pearcy B, Durrani N, Rab A, Mohammed N, 2002. Prevention of malaria in Afghanistan through social marketing of insecticide-treated nets: evaluation of coverage and effectiveness by cross-sectional surveys and passive surveillance. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 813–822.
  8. Abdulla S, Schellenberg JR, Mukasa O, Lengeler C, 2002. Usefulness of a dispensary-based case-control study for assessing morbidity impact of a treated net programme. Int J Epidemiol 31 : 175–180.
  9. O’Dempsey TJ, McArdle TF, Laurence BE, Lamont AC, Todd JE, Greenwood BM, 1993. Overlap in the clinical features of pneumonia and malaria in African children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 : 662–665.
  10. Manson-Bahr PEC, Bell DR, 1987. Manson’s Tropical Diseases. London: Bailliere-Tindall.
  11. Gimnig JE, Vulule JM, Lo TQ, Kamau L, Kolczak MS, Phillips-Howard PA, Mathenge EM, ter Kuile FO, Nahlen BL, High-tower AW, Hawley WA, 2003. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on entomologic indices in an area of intense year-round malaria transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 (Suppl): 16–22.
  12. Vundule C, Mharakurwa S, 1996. Knowledge, practices, and perceptions about malaria in rural communities of Zimbabwe: relevance to malaria control. Bull World Health Organ 74 : 55–60.
  13. Rojas S, Penaranda F, 1992. Strategies for malaria control in Columbia. Parasitol Today 8 : 141–144.
  14. Robert V, Macintyre K, Keating J, Trape JF, Duchemin JB, Warren M, Beier JC, 2003. Malaria transmission in urban sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 169–176.
  15. Pate HV, Line JD, Keto AJ, Miller JE, 2002. Personal protection against mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, by using a kerosene oil lamp to vaporize transfluthrin. Med Vet Entomol 16 : 277–284.
  16. Webster J, Chandramohan D, Freeman T, Greenwood B, Kamawal AU, Rahim F, Rowland M, 2003. A health facility based case-control study of effectiveness of insecticide treated nets: potential for selection bias due to pre-treatment with chloroquine. Trop Med Int Health 8 : 196–201.
  17. Holtz TH, Marum LH, Mkandala C, Chizani N, Roberts JM, Macheso A, Parise ME, Kachur SP, 2002. Insecticide-treated bednet use, anaemia, and malaria parasitaemia in Blantyre District, Malawi. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 220–230.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.622
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.622
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 10 Sep 2004
  • Accepted : 14 Mar 2005

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error