Volume 73, Issue 5_suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


transmission-blocking activity was assessed in sera from acutely infected patients from a malaria-endemic area in Colombia. We measured reduction in the number of oocysts that developed in the midguts of mosquitoes artificially fed with blood from these patients. Of 88 mosquito batches that developed infections when parasites were mixed with normal AB human serum, one-third (36.4%) showed full transmission-blocking activity (≥ 90% inhibition) when mixed with autologous sera, 29.6% showed partial activity (50–89%), 17.0% did not block transmission (0–50%), and 17% did not enhance transmission. Transmission-blocking activity correlated with antibody titer by an immunofluorescent antibody test and decreased with the serial dilution of the sera. This activity disappeared at a 1:4 dilution in most sera tested. Afro-Colombian individuals showed lower activity than other ethnic groups and febrile patients produced stronger inhibition than those without fever.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. WHO, 2005. Malaria Control Today. Current WHO Recommendations. Geneva: World Health Organization, Roll Back Malaria Department, 1–75.
  2. Breman JG, 2001. The ears of the hippopotamus: manifestations, determinants, and estimates of the malaria burden. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64: 1–11. [Google Scholar]
  3. Mendis K, Sina BJ, Marchesini P, Carter R, 2001. The neglected burden of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64: 97–106. [Google Scholar]
  4. Webster D, Hill AVS, 2003. Progress with new malaria vaccines. Bull World Health Organ 81: 902–910. [Google Scholar]
  5. Tsuboi T, Tachibana M, Kaneko TO, Torii M, 2003. Transmission-blocking vaccine of P. vivax malaria. Parasitol Int 52: 1–11. [Google Scholar]
  6. Mendis KN, Menesinghe Y, da Silva YN, Keragalla I, Carter R, 1987. Malaria transmission blocking immunity induced by natural infections of Plasmodium vivax in humans. Infect Immun 55: 369–372. [Google Scholar]
  7. Hoffman SL, Franke ED, Hollingdale MR, Druilhe P, 1996. Perspectives on malaria vaccine development. Hoffman SL, ed. Malaria Vaccine Development. A Multi-Immune Response Approach. Washington, DC: American Society of Microbiology Press, 1–14.
  8. Schofield L, Ferreira A, Altszuler R, Nussenzweig V, Nussenzweig RS, 1987. Interferon-gamma inhibits the intrahepatocytic development of malaria parasites in vitro. J Immunol 139: 2020–2025. [Google Scholar]
  9. Gamage-Mendis AC, Rajakaruna J, Carter R, Mendis KN, 1992. Transmission blocking immunity to human Plasmodium vivax malaria in an endemic population in Kataragama, Sri Lanka. Parasite Immunol 14: 385–396. [Google Scholar]
  10. Ramsey JM, Salinas E, Rodriguez MH, 1996. Acquired transmission-blocking immunity to Plasmodium vivax in a population of southern coastal Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54: 458–463. [Google Scholar]
  11. Mendez F, Carrasquilla G, Muñoz A, 2000. Risk factors associated with malaria infection in an urban setting. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94: 367–371. [Google Scholar]
  12. Gonzalez JM, Olano V, Vergara J, Arevalo-Herrera M, Carrasquilla G, Herrera S, Lopez JA, 1997. Unstable, low-level transmission of malaria on the Colombian Pacific coast. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 91: 349–358. [Google Scholar]
  13. Shute GT, 1988. The microscopic diagnosis of malaria. Wernsdorfer H, McGregor IA, eds. Principles and Practice of Malariology. London: Longman Group UK Limited, 781–814.
  14. Lensen A, von Druten J, Bolmer M, von Gemert J, Eling W, Sauerwein RW, 1996. Measurement by membrane feeding of reduction in Plasmodium falciparum transmission induced by endemic area. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90: 20–22. [Google Scholar]
  15. Mendis C, Gamage-Mendis AC, de Zoysa AP, Abhayawardena TA, Carter R, Herath PR, Mendis KN, 1990. Characteristics of malaria transmission in Kataragama, Sri Lanka: a focus for immunoepidemiological studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 42: 298–308. [Google Scholar]
  16. Peiris JS, Premawansa S, Ranawaka MB, Udagama PV, Munasinghe YD, Nanayakkara MV, Gamage CP, Carter R, David PH, Mendis KN, 1988. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies both block and enhance transmission of human Plasmodium vivax malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 39: 26–32. [Google Scholar]
  17. Malkin EM, Durbin AP, Diemert DJ, Sattabongkot J, Wu Y, Miura K, Long CA, Lambert L, Miles AP, Wang J, Stowers A, Miller LH, Saul A, 2005. Phase I vaccine trial of Pvs25H: a transmission blocking vaccine for Plasmodium vivax malaria. Vaccine 23: 3131–3138. [Google Scholar]
  18. Karunaweera ND, Wijesekera SK, Wanasekera D, Mendis KN, Carter R, 2003. The paroxysm of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Trends Parasitol 19: 188–193. [Google Scholar]
  19. Collins EW, Jeffery GM, Roberts JM, 2004. A retrospective examination of the effect of fever and microgametocyte count on mosquito infection on humans infected with Plasmodium vivax. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 638–641. [Google Scholar]
  20. Wijesekera SK, Carter R, Rathnayaka L, Mendis KN, 1996. A malaria parasite toxin associated with Plasmodium vivax paroxysms. Clin Exp Immunol 104: 221–227. [Google Scholar]
  21. Naotunne T, Karunaweera ND, Mendis KN, Carter R, 1993. Cytokine-mediated inactivation of malarial gametocytes is dependent on the presence of white cells. Immunology 78: 555–562. [Google Scholar]
  22. Naotunne T, Karunaweera ND, del Giudice G, Kularatne MU, Grau GE, Carter R, Mendis K, 1991. Cytokines kill malaria parasites during infection crisis: extracellular complementary factors are essential. J Exp Med 173: 523–529. [Google Scholar]
  23. Hisaeda H, Stowers AW, Tsuboi T, Collins WE, Sattabongkot JS, Suwanabun N, Torii M, Kaslow DC, 2000. Antibodies to malaria vaccine candidates Pvs25 and Pvs28 completely block the ability of Plasmodium vivax to infect mosquitoes. Infect Immun 68: 6618–6623. [Google Scholar]
  24. Healer DJ, McGuinness P, Hopcroft SH, Carter R, Riley E, 1997. Complement-mediated lysis of Plasmodium falciparum gametes by malaria- immune human sera is associated with antibodies to the gamete surface antigen Pfs230. Infect Immun 65: 3017–3023. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 13 May 2005
  • Accepted : 29 Jun 2005

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error