Volume 73, Issue 5_suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


The merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) is expressed in all species and is considered a major malaria vaccine candidate. We found that MSP-1 from (MSP-1) contains a region of significant sequence homology with the 190L subunit vaccine derived from the MSP-1. The fragment, termed 200L, was expressed as a recombinant protein in (r200L) and used to asses its immunologic relevance as a vaccine target. A cross-sectional, seroepidemiologic study conducted in Buenaventura, Colombia showed that 52.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 39.8–64.3) of individuals previously exposed to and 72.8% (95% CI = 61.8–82.1) of –infected patients had IgG antibodies to r200L. Immunization of BALB/c mice and monkeys induced IgG antibodies (titer > 10) that cross-reacted with parasites. Immunized monkeys displayed partial protection against a challenge with blood stages. Our results suggest that 200L is a new malaria vaccine subunit and deserves further testing.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Mendis K, Sina BJ, Marchesini P, Carter R, 2001. The neglected burden of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 : 97–106. [Google Scholar]
  2. Arévalo-Herrera M, Herrera S, 2001. Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine development. Mol Immunol 38 : 443–455. [Google Scholar]
  3. Freeman RR, Holder AA, 1983. Surface antigens of malaria merozoites. A high molecular weight precursor is processed to an 83,000 mol wt form expressed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites. J Exp Med 158 : 1647–1653. [Google Scholar]
  4. Holder AA, Blackman MJ, Burghaus PA, Chappel JA, Ling IT, McCallum-Deighton N, Shai S, 1992. A malaria merozoite surface protein (MSP1)-structure, processing and function. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 87 : 37–42. [Google Scholar]
  5. Blackman MJ, Scott-Finnigan TJ, Shai S, Holder AA, 1994. Antibodies inhibit the protease-mediated processing of a malaria merozoite surface protein. J Exp Med 180 : 389–393. [Google Scholar]
  6. Chappel JA, Holder AA, 1993. Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum invasion in vitro recognise the first growth factor-like domain of merozoite surface protein-1. Mol Biochem Parasitol 60 : 303–311. [Google Scholar]
  7. Uthaipibull C, Aufiero B, Syed SE, Hansen B, Guevara Patino JA, Angov E, Ling IT, Fegeding K, Morgan WD, Ockenhouse C, Birdsall B, Feeney J, Lyon JA, Holder AA, 2001. Inhibitory and blocking monoclonal antibody epitopes on merozoite surface protein 1 of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. J Mol Biol 307 : 1381–1394. [Google Scholar]
  8. Etlinger HM, Caspers P, Matile H, Schoenfeld HJ, Stueber D, Takacs B, 1991. Ability of recombinant or native proteins to protect monkeys against heterologous challenge with Plasmodium falciparum. Infect Immun 59 : 3498–3503. [Google Scholar]
  9. Herrera MA, Rosero F, Herrera S, Caspers P, Rotmann D, Sinigaglia F, Certa U, 1992. Protection against malaria in Aotus monkeys immunized with a recombinant blood-stage antigen fused to a universal T-cell epitope: correlation of serum gamma interferon levels with protection. Infect Immun 60 : 154–158. [Google Scholar]
  10. Egan AF, Blackman MJ, Kaslow DC, 2000. Vaccine efficacy of recombinant Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 in malaria-naive, -exposed, and/or -rechallenged Aotus vociferans monkeys. Infect Immun 68 : 1418–1427. [Google Scholar]
  11. Yang C, Collins WE, Sullivan JS, Kaslow DC, Xiao L, Lal AA, 1999. Partial protection against Plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection in Saimiri monkeys by immunization with a recombinant C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 in block copolymer adjuvant. Infect Immun 67 : 342–349. [Google Scholar]
  12. Sierra AY, Barrero CA, Rodriguez R, Silva Y, Moncada C, Vanegas M, Patarroyo MA, 2003. Splenectomised and spleen intact Aotus monkeys’ immune response to Plasmodium vivax MSP-1 protein fragments and their high activity binding peptides. Vaccine 21 : 4133–4144. [Google Scholar]
  13. Perera KL, Handunnetti SM, Holm I, Longacre S, Mendis K, 1998. Baculovirus merozoite surface protein 1 C-terminal recombinant antigens are highly protective in a natural primate model for human Plasmodium vivax malaria. Infect Immun 66 : 1500–1506. [Google Scholar]
  14. Dutta S, Ware LA, Barbosa A, Ockenhouse CF, Lanar DE, 2001. Purification, characterization, and immunogenicity of a disulfide cross-linked Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate antigen, merozoite surface protein 1, expressed in Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 69 : 5464–5470. [Google Scholar]
  15. Collins WE, Kaslow DC, Sullivan JS, Morris CL, Galland GG, Yang C, Saekhou AM, Xiao L, Lal AA, 1999. Testing the efficacy of a recombinant merozoite surface protein (MSP-1(19) of Plasmodium vivax in Saimiri boliviensis monkeys. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 : 350–356. [Google Scholar]
  16. Genton B, Betuela I, Felger I, Al-Yaman F, Anders RF, Saul A, Rare L, Baisor M, Lorry K, Brown GV, Pye D, Irving DO, Smith TA, Beck HP, Alpers MP, 2002. A recombinant blood-stage malaria vaccine reduces Plasmodium falciparum density and exerts selective pressure on parasite populations in a phase 1-2b trial in Papua New Guinea. J Infect Dis 185 : 820–827. [Google Scholar]
  17. Genton B, Al-Yaman F, Anders R, Saul A, Brown G, Pye D, Irving DO, Briggs WR, Mai A, Ginny M, Adiguma T, Rare L, Giddy A, Reber-Liske R, Stuerchler D, Alpers MP, 2000. Safety and immunogenicity of a three-component blood-stage malaria vaccine in adults living in an endemic area of Papua New Guinea. Vaccine 18 : 2504–2511. [Google Scholar]
  18. Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, Lipman DJ, 1997. Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 25 : 3389–3402. [Google Scholar]
  19. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG, 1997. The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25 : 4876–4882. [Google Scholar]
  20. Qiagen, 2001. The QIAexpressionist . A Handbook for High-Level Expression and Purification of 6xHis-Tagged Proteins. Fifth Edition. Valencia, CA: Qiagen.
  21. Berzofsky RN, 1995. Endotoxin detection in pharmaceuticals and medical devices with Kinetic-QCL, a kinetic-quantitative chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Altex 12 : 93–97. [Google Scholar]
  22. Gonzalez JM, Olano V, Vergara J, Arevalo-Herrera M, Carrasquilla G, Herrera S, Lopez JA, 1997. Unstable, low-level transmission of malaria on the Colombian Pacific coast. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 91 : 349–358. [Google Scholar]
  23. PET, 2001. Informe Comportamiento Epidemiológico de Malaria. Buenaventura (V): Programa de Enfermedades Tropicales, Buena Ventura, Valle, Columbia.
  24. Shute PG, Maryon M, 1963. An improved technique for staining malaria parasites with Giemsa stain. Arch Roum Pathol Exp Microbiol 22 : 887–894. [Google Scholar]
  25. Perlaza BL, Zapata C, Valencia AZ, Hurtado S, Quintero G, Sauzet JP, Brahimi K, Blanc C, Arevalo-Herrera M, Druilhe P, Herrera S, 2003. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Plasmodium falciparum liver-stage Ag-3 in Aotus lemurinus griseimembra monkeys. Eur J Immunol 33 : 1321–1327. [Google Scholar]
  26. Perraut R, Guillotte M, Drame I, Diouf B, Molez JF, Tall A, Trape JF, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Spiegel A, Garraud O, 2002. Evaluation of anti-Plasmodium falciparum antibodies in Senegalese adults using different types of crude extracts from various strains of parasite. Microbes Infect 4 : 31–35. [Google Scholar]
  27. Epp C, Kauth CW, Bujard H, Lutz R, 2003. Expression and purification of Plasmodium falciparum MSP-1(42): A malaria vaccine candidate. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 786 : 61–72. [Google Scholar]
  28. Golenda CF, Li J, Rosenberg R, 1997. Continuous in vitro propagation of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94 : 6786–6791. [Google Scholar]
  29. Rodriguez LE, Urquiza M, Ocampo M, Curtidor H, Suarez J, Garcia J, Vera R, Puentes A, Lopez R, Pinto M, Rivera Z, Patarroyo ME, 2002. Plasmodium vivax MSP-1 peptides have high specific binding activity to human reticulocytes. Vaccine 20 : 1331–1339. [Google Scholar]
  30. Putaporntip C, Jongwutiwes S, Sakihama N, Ferreira MU, Kho WG, Kaneko A, Kanbara H, Hattori T, Tanabe K, 2002. Mosaic organization and heterogeneity in frequency of allelic recombination of the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99 : 16348–16353. [Google Scholar]
  31. Soares IS, Levitus G, Souza JM, Del Portillo HA, Rodrigues MM, 1997. Acquired immune responses to the N- and C-terminal regions of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 in individuals exposed to malaria. Infect Immun 65 : 1606–1614. [Google Scholar]
  32. Soares IS, Oliveira SG, Souza JM, Rodrigues MM, 1999. Antibody response to the N and C-terminal regions of the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 in individuals living in an area of exclusive transmission of P. vivax malaria in the north of Brazil. Acta Trop 72 : 13–24. [Google Scholar]
  33. Urban BC, Mwangi T, Ross A, Kinyanjui S, Mosobo M, Kai O, Lowe B, Marsh K, Roberts DJ, 2001. Peripheral blood dendritic cells in children with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Blood 98 : 2859–2861. [Google Scholar]
  34. Urban BC, Ferguson DJ, Pain A, Willcox N, Plebanski M, Austyn JM, Roberts DJ, 1999. Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes modulate the maturation of dendritic cells. Nature 400 : 73–77. [Google Scholar]
  35. Wipasa J, Xu H, Stowers A, Good MF, 2001. Apoptotic deletion of Th cells specific for the 19-kDa carboxyl-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 during malaria infection. J Immunol 167 : 3903–3909. [Google Scholar]
  36. Herrera MA, Rosero F, Herrera S, Caspers P, Rotmann D, Sinigaglia F, Certa U, 1991. Protection against malaria in Aotus monkeys immunized with a recombinant blood stage antigen fused to a “universal” T-cell epitope: correlation of γ-IFN serum levels with protection. Infect Immun 60 : 154–158. [Google Scholar]
  37. Herrera S, Rudin W, Herrera M, Clavijo P, Mancilla L, de Plata C, Matile H, Certa U, 1993. A conserved region of the MSP-1 surface protein of Plasmodium falciparum contains a recognition sequence for erythrocyte spectrin. EMBO J 12 : 1607–1614. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 13 May 2005
  • Accepted : 29 Jul 2005

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error