1921
Volume 73, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Historically, experiments of in chickens have caused high mortality. Perhaps because of this high mortality, it remains to be demonstrated whether recovered birds will resist a second episode of illness when re-exposed to infected mosquitoes. In the current study, groups of 10 chicks were infected with via mosquito bite. Parasitemia and anemia were followed by recovery in all birds, although they had persisting, low levels of parasitized erythrocytes (0.007 ± 0.019%). Twenty-three days after the initial exposure, 10 recovered chicks were rechallenged with via mosquito bite; none of them developed clinical or hematological evidence of malaria, in contrast to matched control birds, which all became diseased ( < 0.001). Unlike previous studies, the current experiment had no mortality in chickens infected with by mosquito bite. Recovered birds resisted disease from re-exposure to the same organism. The duration and nature of immunity or premunition remain to be determined.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.1104
2005-12-01
2019-06-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/73/6/0731104.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.1104&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. MacCallum WG, 1897. On the flagellated form of the malarial parasite. Lancet 11 : 1240–1241. [Google Scholar]
  2. Ross R, 1898. Report on the cultivation of Proteosoma, Labbé, in grey mosquitoes. Ind Med Gaz 33 : 401–408, 448–451. [Google Scholar]
  3. Ross R, 1899. Life-history of the parasites of malaria. Nature 60 : 322–324. [Google Scholar]
  4. Sergent É, 1910. Sur l’ immunité dans le paludisme des Oiseaux. Conservation in vitro des sporozoites de Plasmodium relictum. Immunité relative obtenue par inoculation de ces sporozoites. C R Acad Sci 151 : 407–409. [Google Scholar]
  5. James SP, Tate P, 1937. New knowledge of the life-cycle of malaria parasites. Nature (London) 139 : 545. [Google Scholar]
  6. Anderson CR, 1953. Continuous propagation of Plasmodium gallinaceum in chicken erythrocytes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2 : 234–242. [Google Scholar]
  7. Warburg A, Miller LH, 1992. Sporogonic development of a malaria parasite in vitro. Science 255 : 448–450. [Google Scholar]
  8. Brumpt É, 1935. Paludisme aviaire: Plasmodium gallinaceum n. sp. de la poule domestique. C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 200 : 783–785. [Google Scholar]
  9. Brumpt É, 1936. Etude expérimentale du Plasmodium gallinaceum parasite d la poule domestique. Transmission de ce germe par Stegomyia fasciata et Stegomyia albopicta. Ann Parasitol 14 : 597–620. [Google Scholar]
  10. James SP, Tate P, 1938. Exo-erythrocytic schizogony in Plasmodium gallinaceum Brumpt, 1935. Parasitology 30 : 128–139. [Google Scholar]
  11. James SP, 1939. The incidence of exo-erythrocytic schizogony in Plasmodium gallinaceum in relation to the mode of infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg XXXII : 763–769. [Google Scholar]
  12. Russell PF, Mulligan HW, Mohan BN, 1942. Active immunization of fowls against sporozoites but not trophozoites of Plasmodium gallinaceum by injections of homologous sporozoites. J Malaria Institute India 4 : 311–319. [Google Scholar]
  13. Coatney GR, Cooper WC, Miles VI, 1945. Studies on Plasmodium gallinaceum Brumpt. I. The incidence and course of the infection in young chicks resulting from single mosquito bites. Am J Hyg 41 : 109–118. [Google Scholar]
  14. Samuels ML, 1989. Guidelines for Controlling Multiplicity. Statistics for the Life Sciences. San Francisco: Dellen Publishing Co., 504–509.
  15. Williams RB, 1985. Biliverdin production in chickens infected with the malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. Avian Pathol 14 : 409–419. [Google Scholar]
  16. Vincke IH, Lips M, 1948. Un nouveau plasmodium d’un ronguer saurage du Congo, Plasmodium berghei n. sp. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 28 : 97–104. [Google Scholar]
  17. McCutchan TF, Kissinger JC, Touray MG, Rogers MJ, Li J, Sullivan M, Braga EM, Krettli AU, Miller LH, 1996. Comparison of circumsporozoite proteins from avian and mammalian malarias: biological and phylogenetic implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93 : 11889–11894. [Google Scholar]
  18. Escalante AA, Freeland DE, Collins WE, Lal AA, 1998. The evolution of primate malaria parasites based on the gene encoding cytochrome b from the linear mitochondrial genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95 : 8124–8129. [Google Scholar]
  19. Kissinger JC, Souza PC, Soarest CO, Paul R, Wahl AM, Rathore D, McCutchan TF, Krettli AU, 2002. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium (Novyella) juxtanucleare. J Parasitol 88 : 769–773. [Google Scholar]
  20. Leclerc MC, Hugot JP, Durand P, Renaud F, 2004. Evolutionary relationships between 15 Plasmodium species from new and old world primates (including humans): an 18S rDNA cladistic analysis. Parasitology 129 : 677–684. [Google Scholar]
  21. Beasley SJ, 1972. Plasmodium gallinaceum: comparative infection rates in Aedes aegypti and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Exp Parasitol 32 : 11–20. [Google Scholar]
  22. Alavi Y, Arai M, Mendoza J, Tufet-Bayona M, Sinha R, Fowler K, Billker O, Franke-Fayard B, Janse CJ, Waters A, Sinden RE, 2003. The dynamics of interactions between Plasmodium and the mosquito: a study of the infectivity of Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium gallinaceum, and their transmission by Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti. Int J Parasitol 33 : 933–943. [Google Scholar]
  23. Vezzoso B, 1941. L’immunità passiva nell’infezione da Plasmodium gallinaceum: nota seconda. Rivista di Malariologia XX : 238–250. [Google Scholar]
  24. Taliaferro WH, Taliaferro LG, 1950. Reproduction-inhibiting and parasiticidal effects on Plasmodium gallinaceum and Plasmodium lophurae during initial infection and homologous superinfection in chickens. J Infect Dis 86 : 275–294. [Google Scholar]
  25. Taliaferro WH, Taliaferro LG, 1955. Reactions of the connective tissue in chickens to Plasmodium gallinaceum and Plasmodium lophurae. I. Histopathology during initial infections and superinfections. J Infect Dis 97 : 99–136. [Google Scholar]
  26. Deschiens R, Pick F, Sarauw U, 1956. L’ immunisation expérimentale de la poule domestique contre l’infestation a Plasmodium gallinaceum. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 49 : 353–365. [Google Scholar]
  27. McGhee RB, Singh SD, Weathersby AB, 1977. Plasmodium gallinaceum: vaccination in chickens. Exp Parasitol 43 : 231–238. [Google Scholar]
  28. Hughes HP, Dixon B, 1980. Vaccination of chicks against Plasmodium gallinaceum by erythrocytic and exoerythrocytic parasites attenuated by gamma irradiation. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 74 : 115–126. [Google Scholar]
  29. Permin A, Juhl J, 2002. The development of Plasmodium gallinaceum infections in chickens following single infections with three different dose levels. Vet Parasitol 105 : 1–10. [Google Scholar]
  30. Williams RB, 2005. Avian malaria: clinical and chemical pathology of Plasmodium gallinaceum in the domesticated fowl Gallus gallus. Avian Pathol 34 : 29–47. [Google Scholar]
  31. Williams RB, 2005. The efficacy of a mixture of trimethoprim and sulphaquinoxaline against Plasmodium gallinaceum malaria in the domesticated fowl Gallus gallus. Vet Parasitol 129 : 193–207. [Google Scholar]
  32. Garnham PCC, 1966. Malaria Parasites and Other Haemosporidia. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  33. Warburg A, Schneider I, 1993. In vitro culture of the mosquito stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Exp Parasitol 76 : 121–126. [Google Scholar]
  34. Marsh K, 1992. Malaria–a neglected disease? Parasitology 104 (Suppl): S53–S69. [Google Scholar]
  35. Baird JK, 1998. Age-dependent characteristics of protection v. susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92 : 367–390. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.1104
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.1104
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 Jun 2005
  • Accepted : 22 Jul 2005

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error