Volume 73, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


transmission blocking immunity (TBI) was investigated in 3 different endemic areas. Reared were experimentally infected with the blood of gametocyte carriers, either in the presence of autologous plasma (OWN) or after replacement of the OWN plasma with a nonimmune serum of AB blood group (control). Transmission reduction was defined by a lower level of mosquito infection in the OWN batch compared with the control. After controlling for the effect of gametocytemia, the proportion of “transmission reducers” was lower in the town of Yaounde in Cameroon (UC), (14%, = 75) than in the two rural areas of South Cameroon (RC) (29%, = 31) and Sénégal (RS) (44%, = 32). The contribution of TBI relative to the total inhibition of the parasite development (including human, parasite, and mosquito factors) was higher in RS (49.6%) than in RC (12.6%) and UC (9.5%).


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Carter R, Kumar N, Quakyi IA, Good MF, Mendis KN, Graves PM, Miller LH, 1988. Immunity to sexual stages of malaria parasites. Prog Allergy 41 : 193–214. [Google Scholar]
  2. Carter R, Miller LH, Rener J, Kaushal DC, Kumar N, Graves PM, Grotendorst CA, Gwadz RW, French C, Wirth D, 1984. Target antigens in malaria transmission blocking immunity. Philos Trans R Soc London B Biol Sci 307 : 201–213. [Google Scholar]
  3. Vermeulen A, Van Deursen J, Brakenhoff RH, Lensen THW, Ponnudurai TV, Meuwissen JHT, 1986. Characterization of Plasmodium.falciparum sexual stage antigens and their biosynthesis in synchronized gametocyte cultures. Mol Biochem Parasitol 20 : 155–163. [Google Scholar]
  4. Lensen THW, van Druten J, Bolmer MG, van Gemert G, Eling WM, Sauerwein R, 1996. Measurement by membrane feeding of reduction in Plasmodium falciparum transmission induced by endemic sera. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 : 20–22. [Google Scholar]
  5. Mulder B, Lensen T, Tchuinkam T, Roeffen W, Verhave JP, Boudin C, Sauerwein R, 1999. Plasmodium falciparum: membrane feeding assays and competition ELISAs for the measurement of transmission reduction in sera from Cameroon. Exp Parasitol 92 : 81–86. [Google Scholar]
  6. Ponnudurai TV, Van Gemert GJ, Lensen THW, 1987. Transmission blockade of Plasmodium falciparum: its variability with gametocyte numbers and concentration of antibody. Trans R. Soc Trop Med Hyg 81 : 491–493. [Google Scholar]
  7. Mulder B, Tchuinkam T, Dechering KJ, Verhave JP, Carnevale P, Meuwissen JH, Robert V, 1994. Malaria transmission-blocking activity in experimental infections of Anopheles gambiae from naturally infected Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriers. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88 : 121–125. [Google Scholar]
  8. Boudin C, Van Der Kolk M, Tchuinkam T, Gouagna LC, Bonnet S, Safeukui I, Mulder B, Meunier JY, Verhave JP, 2004. Plasmodium falciparum transmission blocking immunity under conditions of low and high endemicity in Cameroon. Parasite Immunol 26 : 105–110. [Google Scholar]
  9. Premawansa S, Gamage-Mendis AC, Perera L, Begarnie S, Mendis KN, Carter R, 1994. Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission-blocking immunity under conditions of low endemicity as in Sri Lanka. Parasite Immunol 16 : 35–42. [Google Scholar]
  10. Graves PM, Carter R, Burkot TR, Quakyi IA, Kumar N, 1988. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum gamete surface antigens in Papua New Guinea sera. Parasite Immunol 10 : 209–218. [Google Scholar]
  11. Gamage-Mendis AC, Rajakaruna J, Carter R, Mendis KN, 1992. Transmission blocking immunity to human Plasmodium vivax malaria in an endemic population in Kataragama, Sri Lanka. Parasite Immunol 14 : 385–396. [Google Scholar]
  12. Drakeley CJ, Mulder B, Tchuinkam T, Gupta S, Sauerwein R, Targett GA, 1998. Transmission-blocking effects of sera from malaria-exposed individuals on Plasmodium falciparum isolates from gametocyte carriers. Parasitology 116 : 417–423. [Google Scholar]
  13. Bonnet S, Gouagna LC, Paul RE, Safeukui I, Meunier JY, Boudin C, 2003. Estimation of malaria transmission from humans to mosquitoes in two neighbouring villages in south Cameroon: evaluation and comparison of several indices. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97 : 53–59. [Google Scholar]
  14. Robert V, Dieng H, Lochouran L, Traore SF, Trape JF, Simondon F, Fontenille D, 1998. La transmission du paludisme dans la zone de Niakhar, Sénégal. Trop Med Int Health 3 : 667–677. [Google Scholar]
  15. Bonnet S, Paul RE, Gouagna C, Safeukui I, Meunier JY, Gounoue R, Boudin C, 2002. Level and dynamics of malaria transmission and morbidity in an equatorial area of South Cameroon. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 249–256. [Google Scholar]
  16. Meunier JY, Safeukui I, Fontenille D, Boudin C, 1999. Etude de la transmission du paludisme dans une future zone d’essai vaccinal en foret equatoriale du sud Cameroun. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 92 : 309–312. [Google Scholar]
  17. Manga L, Robert V, Messi J, Desfontaine M, Carnevale P, 1992. Le paludisme urbain à Yaoundé, Cameroun. 1) Etude entomologique dans 2 quartiers centraux. Mem Soc R Belge Entomol 35 : 155–162. [Google Scholar]
  18. Tchuinkam T, Mulder B, Dechering KJ, Stoffels H, Verhave JP, Cot M, Carnevale P, Meuwissen JH, Robert V, 1993. Experimental infections of Anopheles gambiae with Plasmodium falciparum of naturally infected gametocyte carriers in Cameroon: factors influencing the infectivity to mosquitoes. Trop Med Parasitol 44 : 271–276. [Google Scholar]
  19. Medley GF, Sinden RE, Fleck S, Billingsley PF, Tirawanchai N, Rodriguez MH, 1993. Heterogeneity in patterns of malarial oocyst infections in the mosquito vector. Parasitology 106 : 441–449. [Google Scholar]
  20. Lensen THW, 1996. Infectivity of malaria parasites to mosquitoes: the independent roles of parasite, vector and host. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 90 : 359–365. [Google Scholar]
  21. Robert V, Boudin C, 2003. Biologie de la transmission hommemoustique du Plasmodium. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 96 : 6–20. [Google Scholar]
  22. Boudin C, Olivier M, Molez JF, Chiron JP, Ambroise-Thomas P, 1993. High human malarial infectivity to laboratory-bred Anopheles gambiae in a village in Burkina Faso. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48 : 700–706. [Google Scholar]
  23. Graves PM, Doubrovsky A, Sattabongkot J, Battistutta D, 1992. Human antibody responses to epitopes on the Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte antigen PFS 48/45 and their relationship to infectivity of gametocyte carriers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 46 : 711–719. [Google Scholar]
  24. Rieckmann K, McNamara J, Stockert T, Powell R, 1968. Cametocytocidal and sporontocidal effects of Primaquine and sulfadiazine with pyrimethamine in a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Bull WHO 38 : 625–632. [Google Scholar]
  25. Hogh B, Gamage-Mendis A, Butcher GA, Thompson R, Begtrup K, Mendis C, Enosse SM, Dgedge M, Barreto J, Eling WM, Sinden RE, 1998. The differing impact of chloroquine and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine upon the infectivity of malaria species to the mosquito vector. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58 : 176–182. [Google Scholar]
  26. Robert V, Awono-Ambene HP, Le Hesran JY, Trape JF, 2000. Gametocytemia and infectivity to mosquitoes of patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria attacks treated with chloroquine or sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 : 210–216. [Google Scholar]
  27. Ranawaka MB, Munesinghe YD, de Silva DM, Carter R, Mendis KN, 1988. Boosting of transmission-blocking immunity during natural Plasmodium vivax infections in humans depends upon frequent reinfection. Infect Immun 56 : 1820–1824. [Google Scholar]
  28. Bonnet S, Gouagna LC, Paul RE, Safeukui I, Meunier JY, Boudin C, 2003. Estimation of malaria transmission from humans to mosquitoes in two neighbouring villages in south Cameroon: evaluation and comparison of several indices. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97 : 53–59. [Google Scholar]
  29. Githeko AK, Brandling-Bennett AD, Beier MS, Atieli F, Owaga M, Collins FH, 1992. The reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a holoendemic area of western Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86 : 355–358. [Google Scholar]
  30. Muirhead-Thomson RC, 1954. Factors determining the true reservoir of infection of Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti in a West African village. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 48 : 208–225. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 02 Jul 2004
  • Accepted : 13 Jan 2005

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error