1921
Volume 72, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

An epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the rapid differentiation of serologic responses to enzootic variety IE and ID versus epizootic variety IAB and IC strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus. Two monoclonal antibodies that differentially recognize epizootic versus enzootic VEE virus epitopes were used to measure the serotype-specific blocking abilities of antibodies in sera of naturally infected humans, equines, and bovines, as well as in experimentally infected equines. The assay is simple, species-independent, rapid, and sensitive, and will improve surveillance for VEE emergence. It could also be used to determine the epidemic potential of a VEE virus following an intentional introduction for bioterrorism.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.805
2005-06-01
2019-05-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/72/6/0720805.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.805&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Weaver SC, Dalgarno L, Frey TK, Huang HV, Kinney RM, Rice CM, Roehrig JT, Shope RE, Strauss EG, 2000. Family Togaviridae. van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Carstens EB, Estes MK, Lemon SM, Maniloff J, Mayo MA, McGeogh DJ, Pringle CR, Wickner RB, eds. Virus Taxonomy Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 879–889.
  2. Calisher CH, Karabatsos N, 1988. Arbovirus serogroups: definition and geographic distribution. Monath TP, ed. The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology. Volume I. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 19–57.
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. Fourth edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  4. Weaver SC, Ferro C, Barrera R, Boshell J, Navarro JC, 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Annu Rev Entomol 49 : 141–174. [Google Scholar]
  5. Hawley RJ, Eitzen EM Jr, 2001. Biological weapons—a primer for microbiologists. Annu Rev Microbiol 55 : 235–253. [Google Scholar]
  6. Strauss JH, Strauss EG, 1994. The alphaviruses: gene expression, replication, and evolution. Microbiol Rev 58 : 491–562. [Google Scholar]
  7. Roehrig JT, 1993. Immunogens of encephalitis viruses. Vet Microbiol 37 : 273–284. [Google Scholar]
  8. Rivas F, Diaz LA, Cardenas VM, Daza E, Bruzon L, Alcala A, De la Hoz O, Caceres FM, Aristizabal G, Martinez JW, Revelo D, De la Hoz F, Boshell J, Camacho T, Calderon L, Olano VA, Villarreal LI, Roselli D, Alvarez G, Ludwig G, Tsai T, 1997. Epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in La Guajira, Colombia, 1995. J Infect Dis 175 : 828–832. [Google Scholar]
  9. Johnson KM, Martin DH, 1974. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 18 : 79–116. [Google Scholar]
  10. Leon CA, 1975. Sequelae of Venezuelan equine encephalitis in humans: a four year follow-up. Int J Epidemiol 4 : 131–140. [Google Scholar]
  11. Tsai TF, Weaver SC, Monath TP, 2002. Alphaviruses. Richman DD, Whitley RJ, Hayden FG, eds. Clinical Virology. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology Press, 1177–1210.
  12. Deresiewicz RL, Thaler SJ, Hsu L, Zamani AA, 1997. Clinical and neuroradiographic manifestations of eastern equine encephalitis. N Engl J Med 336 : 1867–1874. [Google Scholar]
  13. Calisher CH, el-Kafrawi AO, Al-Deen Mahmud MI, Travassos da Rosa AP, Bartz CR, Brummer-Korvenkontio M, Haksohusodo S, Suharyono W, 1986. Complex-specific immunoglobulin M antibody patterns in humans infected with alphaviruses. J Clin Microbiol 23 : 155–159. [Google Scholar]
  14. Sahu SP, Alstad AD, Pedersen DD, Pearson JE, 1994. Diagnosis of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in horses by immunoglobulin M and G capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Vet Diagn Invest 6 : 34–38. [Google Scholar]
  15. Martin DA, Muth DA, Brown T, Johnson AJ, Karabatsos N, Roehrig JT, 2000. Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 1823–1826. [Google Scholar]
  16. Blitvich BJ, Bowen RA, Marlenee NL, Hall RA, Bunning ML, Beaty BJ, 2003. Epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of West Nile virus antibodies in domestic mammals. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 2676–2679. [Google Scholar]
  17. Blitvich BJ, Marlenee NL, Hall RA, Calisher CH, Bowen RA, Roehrig JT, Komar N, Langevin SA, Beaty BJ, 2003. Epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of serum antibodies to West Nile virus in multiple avian species. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 1041–1047. [Google Scholar]
  18. Hall RA, Broom AK, Hartnett AC, Howard MJ, Mackenzie JS, 1995. Immunodominant epitopes on the NS1 protein of MVE and KUN viruses serve as targets for a blocking ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animal serum. J Virol Methods 51 : 201–210. [Google Scholar]
  19. Passler S, Pfeffer M, 2003. Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses and discrimination between antibodies to eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses in rabbit sera using a recombinant antigen and virus-specific monoclonal antibodies. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 50 : 265–269. [Google Scholar]
  20. Berge TO, Banks IS, Tigertt WD, 1961. Attenuation of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus by in vitro cultivation in guinea pig heart cells. Am J Hyg 73 : 209–218. [Google Scholar]
  21. Walder R, Suarez OM, Calisher CH, 1984. Arbovirus studies in the Guajira region of Venezuela: activities of eastern equine encephalitis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses during an interepizootic period. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33 : 699–707. [Google Scholar]
  22. Rico-Hesse R, Weaver SC, de Siger J, Medina G, Salas RA, 1995. Emergence of a new epidemic/epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in South America. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92 : 5278–5281. [Google Scholar]
  23. Powers AM, Brault AC, Kinney RM, Weaver SC, 2000. The use of chimeric Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses as an approach for the molecular identification of natural virulence determinants. J Virol 74 : 4258–4263. [Google Scholar]
  24. Wang E, Brault AC, Powers AM, Kang W, Weaver SC, 2003. Glycosaminoglycan binding properties of natural Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus isolates. J Virol 77 : 1204–1210. [Google Scholar]
  25. Roehrig JT, Bolin RA, 1997. Monoclonal antibodies capable of distinguishing epizootic from enzootic varieties of subtype I Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses in a rapid indirect immunofluorescence assay. J Clin Microbiol 35 : 1887–1890. [Google Scholar]
  26. Wang E, Bowen RA, Medina G, Powers AM, Kang W, Chandler LM, Shope RE, Weaver SC, 2001. Virulence and viremia characteristics of 1992 epizootic subtype IC Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses and closely related enzootic subtype ID strains. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65 : 64–69. [Google Scholar]
  27. Gonzalez-Salazar D, Estrada-Franco JG, Carrara AS, Aronson JF, Weaver SC, 2003. Equine amplification and virulence of subtype IE Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses isolated during the 1993 and 1996 Mexican epizootics. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 161–168. [Google Scholar]
  28. Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RE, 1989. Arboviruses. Schmidt NJ, Emmons RW, eds. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections. Sixth edition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 797–855.
  29. Aguilar PV, Greene IP, Coffey LL, Medina G, Moncayo AC, Anishchenko M, Ludwig GV, Turell MJ, O’Guinn ML, Lee J, Tesh RB, Watts DM, Russell KL, Hice C, Yanoviak S, Morrison AC, Klein TA, Dohm DJ, Guzman H, Travassos da Rosa AP, Guevara C, Kochel T, Olson J, Cabezas C, Weaver SC, 2004. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 880–888. [Google Scholar]
  30. Watts DM, Callahan J, Rossi C, Oberste MS, Roehrig JT, Wooster MT, Smith JF, Cropp CB, Gentrau EM, Karabatsos N, Gubler D, Hayes CG, 1998. Venezuelan equine encephalitis febrile cases among humans in the Peruvian Amazon River region. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58 : 35–40. [Google Scholar]
  31. Estrada-Franco JG, Navarro-Lopez R, Freier JE, Cordova D, Clements T, Moncayo AC, Kang W, Gomez-Hernandez C, Rodriguez-Dominguez G, Ludwig GV, Weaver SC, 2004. Enzootic/endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, southern Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 2113–2121. [Google Scholar]
  32. Dickerman RW, Baker GJ, Ordonez JV, Scherer WF, 1973. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis viremia and antibody responses of pigs and cattle. Am J Vet Res 34 : 357–361. [Google Scholar]
  33. Walton TE, Johnson KM, 1972. Experimental Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus infection of the bovine. Infect Immun 5 : 155–159. [Google Scholar]
  34. Scherer WF, Dickerman RW, Campillo-Sainz C, Zarate ML, Gonzales E, 1971. Ecologic studies of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in southeastern Mexico. V. Infection of domestic animals other than equines. Am J Trop Med Hyg 20 : 989–993. [Google Scholar]
  35. Paessler S, Fayzulin RZ, Anishchenko M, Greene IP, Weaver SC, Frolov I, 2003. Recombinant Sindbis/Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is highly attenuated and immunogenic. J Virol 77 : 9278–9286. [Google Scholar]
  36. Kolokoltsov AA, Weaver SC, Davey RA, 2005. Efficient functional pseudotyping of oncoretroviral and lentiviral vectors by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus envelope proteins. J Virol 79 : 756–763. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.805
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.805
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 28 Oct 2004
  • Accepted : 14 Dec 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error