Volume 72, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Although pyrethroid-treated materials are a promising tool for the prevention and the control of dengue in the tropics, the development of pyrethroid resistance in the main mosquito vector () may negate their use for personal and/or community protection. In that context, the efficacy of a mixture of a repellent (N,N-diethyl toluamide [DEET]) and a non-pyrethroid insecticide (propoxur) was investigated under laboratory conditions against both pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes with the knockdown resistance () mutation. The results showed that a combination of propoxur and DEET induced a knockdown effect and mortality as high as deltamethrin (a standard pyrethroid) against the susceptible strain, and significantly higher efficacy against the pyrethroid-resistant strain. This could be explained mainly by the existence of a strong synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur in mosquitoes. This study constitutes a first step towards an alternative strategy for improving mosquito control in areas with pyrethroid resistance.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Elliott M, Janes NF, Jeffs KA, Needham PH, Sawicki RM, 1965. New pyrethrin-like esters with high insecticidal activity. Nature 207 : 938–940. [Google Scholar]
  2. Elliot M, Janes NF, 1978. Synthetic pyrethroids—a new class of insecticides. Chem Soc Rev 7 : 473–505. [Google Scholar]
  3. Zaim M, Aitio A, Nakashima N, 2000. Safety of pyrethroid-treated mosquito nets. Med Vet Entomol 14 : 1–5. [Google Scholar]
  4. Lengeler C, 2004. Insecticide-treated bed nets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD000363.
  5. World Health Organization, 1997. Vector Control: Methods for Use by Individuals and Communities. Geneva: World Health Organization, 52–177.
  6. Martinez-Torres D, Foster SP, Field LM, Devonshire AL, Williamson MS, 1999. A sodium channel point mutation is associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides in the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Insect Mol Biol 8 : 339–346. [Google Scholar]
  7. Martinez-Torres D, Chandre F, Williamson MS, Darriet F, Berge JB, Devonshire AL, Guillet P, Pasteur N, Pauron D, 1998. Molecular characterization of pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Insect Mol Biol 7 : 179–184. [Google Scholar]
  8. Chandre F, Darriet F, Manguin S, Brengues C, Carnevale P, Guillet P, 1999. Pyrethroid cross resistance spectrum among populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Cotê d’Ivoire. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15 : 53–59. [Google Scholar]
  9. Brengues C, Hawkes NJ, Chandre F, McCarroll L, Duchon S, Guillet P, Manguin S, Morgan JC, Hemingway J, 2003. Pyrethroid and DDT cross-resistance in Aedes aegypti is correlated with novel mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Med Vet Entomol 17 : 87–94. [Google Scholar]
  10. Hemingway J, Ranson H, 2000. Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human disease. Annu Rev Entomol 45 : 371–391. [Google Scholar]
  11. Kolaczinski JH, Fanello C, Herve JP, Conway DJ, Carnevale P, Curtis CF, 2000. Experimental and molecular genetic analysis of the impact of pyrethroid and non-pyrethroid insecticide impregnated bed-nets for mosquito control in an area of pyre-throid resistance. Bull Entomol Res 90 : 125–132. [Google Scholar]
  12. Darriet F, Guillet P, N’Guessan R, Doannio JM, Koffi A, Konan LY, Carnevale P, 1998. Impact of resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.s. to permethrin and deltamethrin on the efficacy of impregnated mosquito nets. Med Trop (Mars) 58–4 : 349–354. [Google Scholar]
  13. Corbel V, Chandre F, Brengues C, Akogbeto M, Lardeux F, Hougard JM, Guillet P, 2004. Dosage-dependent effects of permethrin-treated nets on the behaviour of Anopheles gambiae and the selection of pyrethroid resistance. Malar J 3–1 : 22–30. [Google Scholar]
  14. Darriet F, Guillet P, N’Guessan RN, Doannio JMC, Koffi AA, Konan LY, Carnevale P, 1999. The Impact of Permethrin and Deltamethrin Resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. on Efficacy of Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Nets. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/VBC/99.1002.
  15. Darriet F, N’Guessan R, Koffi AA, Konan L, Doannio JM, Chandre F, Carnevale P, 2000. Impact of pyrethrin resistance on the efficacy of impregnated mosquito nets in the prevention of malaria: results of tests in experimental cases with deltamethrin. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 93–2 : 131–134. [Google Scholar]
  16. Chandre F, Darriet F, Duchon S, Finot L, Manguin S, Carnevale P, Guillet P, 2000. Modifications of pyrethroid effects associated with kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae. Med Vet Entomol 14 : 81–88. [Google Scholar]
  17. Curtis CF, Miller JE, Hodjati MH, Kolaczinski JH, Kasumba I, 1998. Can anything be done to maintain the effectiveness of pyrethroid-impregnated bed-nets against malaria vectors? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 353–1376 : 1769–1775. [Google Scholar]
  18. Fanello C, Carneiro I, Ilboudo-Sanogo E, Cuzin-Ouattara N, Badolo A, Curtis CF, 2003. Comparative evaluation of carbosul-fan- and permethrin-impregnated curtains for preventing house-entry by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso. Med Vet Entomol 17–3 : 333–338. [Google Scholar]
  19. N’Guessan R, Darriet F, Guillet P, Carnevale P, Traore-Lamizana M, Corbel V, Koffi AA, Chandre F, 2003. Resistance to carbosulfan in Anopheles gambiae from Ivory Coast, based on reduced sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase. Med Vet Entomol 17-1 : 19–25. [Google Scholar]
  20. Curtis CF, Mnzava AE, 2000. Comparison of house spraying and insecticide-treated nets for malaria control. Bull World Health Organ 78-12 : 1389–1400. [Google Scholar]
  21. Qiu H, Jun HW, McCall JW, 1998. Pharmacokinetics, formulation, and safety of insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET): a review. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 14-1 : 12–27. [Google Scholar]
  22. Curtis CF, Mnzava AE, 2000. Comparison of house spraying and insecticide-treated nets for malaria control. Bull World Health Organ 78-12 : 1389–1400. [Google Scholar]
  23. World Health Organization, 1998. Report of WHO Informal Consultation Tests Procedures for Insecticide Resistance Monitoring in Malaria Vectors, Bio-efficacy and Persistence of Insecticides on Treated Surfaces. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/CDS/CPC/MAL/98.12.
  24. Abbott WS, 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol 18 : 265–267. [Google Scholar]
  25. Finney DJ, 1971. Probit Analysis. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  26. Raymond M, Prato G, Ratsira D, 1997. Probit and Logit Analysis Program Version 2.0. Montpellier, France: Centre National de Scientifique.
  27. Mouchet J, Cavalie P, Callies JM, Marticou H, 1961. Irritability with respect to DDT of Anopheles gambiae and A. funestus in northern Cameroon. Riv Malariol 40 : 191–217. [Google Scholar]
  28. Hodjati MH, Curtis CF, 1999. Effects of permethrin at different temperatures on pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles. Med Vet Entomol 13-4 : 415–422. [Google Scholar]
  29. Bliss CI, 1939. The toxicity of poisons applied jointly. Ann Appl Biol 26 : 585–615. [Google Scholar]
  30. Corbel V, Darriet F, Chandre F, Hougard JM, 2002. Insecticide mixtures for mosquito net impregnation against malaria vectors. Parasite 9 : 255–259. [Google Scholar]
  31. Darriet F, Corbel V, Hougard JM, 2003. Efficacy of mosquito nets treated with a pyrethroid-organophosphorous mixture against Kdr- and Kdr+ malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae). Parasite 10 : 359–362. [Google Scholar]
  32. Eldefrawi AT, Eldefrawi ME, 1976. Identification of a calcium-binding subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. Biochem Bio-phys Res Commun 70 : 1020–1027. [Google Scholar]
  33. Davis EE, 1985. Insect repellents: concepts of their mode of action relative to potential sensory mechanisms in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 22 : 237–243. [Google Scholar]
  34. Corbel V, Hue B, Bonnet J, Hougard JM, Lapied B, 2004. Effects of pyrethroid and carbamate combinations on insect synaptic transmission. Proceedings of IX European Multicolloquium of Parasitology. Valencia, Spain. July 18–23, 2004
  35. Corbett JR, 1974. The Biochemical Mode of Action of Pesticides. New York: Academic Press.
  36. Wilkinson CF, 1976. Insecticide interactions. Wilkinson CF, ed. Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology. New York: Plenum Press, 605–647.
  37. Gunning RV, Moores GD, Devonshire AL, 1999. Esterase inhibitors synergise the toxicity of pyrethroids in Australian He-licoperva armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pest Biochem Physiol 63 : 50–62. [Google Scholar]
  38. Constantino L, Rosa E, Iley J, 1992. The microsomal demethy-lation of N,N-dimethylbenzamides. Substituent and kinetic deuterium isotope effects. Biochem Pharmacol 44 : 651–658. [Google Scholar]
  39. Constantino L, Iley J, 1999. Microsomal metabolism of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET, DET): the extended network of metabolites. Xenobiotica 29 : 409–416. [Google Scholar]
  40. Iley J, Constantino L, 1993. The microsomal dealkylation of N,N-dialkylbenzamides. Biochem Pharmacol 47 : 275–280. [Google Scholar]
  41. Weill M, Malcolm C, Chandre F, Mogensen K, Berthomieu A, Marquine M, Raymond M, 2004. The unique mutation in ace-1 giving high insecticide resistance is easily detectable in mosquito vectors. Insect Mol Biol 13 : 1–7. [Google Scholar]
  42. Weill M, Berthomieu A, Berticat C, Lutfalla G, Negre V, Pasteur N, Philips A, Leonetti JP, Fort P, Raymond M, 2004. Insecticide resistance: a silent base prediction. Curr Biol 14-14 : R552–R553. [Google Scholar]
  43. Weill M, Lutfalla G, Mogensen K, Chandre F, Berthomieu A, Berticat C, Pasteur N, Philips A, Fort P, Raymond M, 2003. Comparative genomics: Insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Nature 423-6936 : 136–137. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 24 Sep 2004
  • Accepted : 13 Dec 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error