1921
Volume 72, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Studies with animal models have suggested the possibility of interactions between parasites during concurrent infections and have raised the question of a similar phenomenon in humans. The present survey was undertaken to assess the impact of urinary schistosomiasis on the susceptibility of children to malaria. It was carried out in Senegal between September 2001 and March 2002 among 523 children 3–15 years of age. We tested the association between densities and the load of egg excretion using a linear mixed model because data were not independent. After controlling for age, sex, and season, we showed that children lightly infected with (1–9 eggs/10 mL of urine) had lower densities than those not infected (β = −0.34, 95% confidence interval = −0.85, −0.10), suggesting a negative interaction between both parasites.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.702
2005-06-01
2019-03-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/72/6/0720702.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.702&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Petney TN, Andrews RH, 1998. Multiparasite communities in animals and humans: frequency, structure and pathogenic significance. Int J Parasitol 28 : 377–393. [Google Scholar]
  2. Ashford RW, Craig PS, Oppenheimer SJ, 1992. Polyparasitism on the Kenya coast. 1. Prevalence and association between parasitic infections. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 86 : 671–679. [Google Scholar]
  3. Keiser J, N’Goran EK, Traore M, Lohourignon KL, Singer BH, Lengeler C, Tanner M, Utzinger J, 2002. Polyparasitism with Schistosoma mansoni, geohelminths, and intestinal protozoa in rural Côte d’Ivoire. J Parasitol 88 : 461–466. [Google Scholar]
  4. Christensen NO, Furu P, Kurtzhals J, Odaibo A, 1988. Heterologous synergistic interactions in concurrent experimental infection in the mouse with Schistosoma mansoni, Echinostoma revolutum, Plasmodium yoelii, Babesia microti, and Trypanosoma brucei. Parasitol Res 74 : 544–551. [Google Scholar]
  5. Cox FEG, 2001. Concomitant infections, parasites and immune responses. Parasitology 122 : S23–S38. [Google Scholar]
  6. Helmby H, Kullberg M, Troye-Blomberg M, 1998. Altered immune responses in mice with concomitant Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium chabaudi infections. Infect Immun 66 : 5167–5174. [Google Scholar]
  7. Yoshida A, Maruyama H, Kumagai T, Amano T, Kobayashi F, Zhang M, Himeno K, Ohta N, 2000. Schistosoma mansoni infection cancels the susceptibility to Plasmodium chabaudi through induction of type 1 immune responses in A/J mice. Int Immunol 12 : 1117–1125. [Google Scholar]
  8. Abdel-Wahab MF, Powers KG, Mahmoud SS, Good WC, 1974. Suppression of schistosome granuloma formation by malaria in mice. Am J Trop Med Hyg 23 : 915–918. [Google Scholar]
  9. Murray MJ, Murray AB, Murray MB, Murray CJ, 1977. Parotid enlargement, forehead edema, and suppression of malaria as nutritional consequences of ascariasis. Am J Clin Nutr 30 : 2117–2121. [Google Scholar]
  10. Nacher M, Gay F, Singhasivanon P, Krudsood S, Treeprasertsuk S, Mazier D, Vouldoukis I, Looareesuwan S, 2000. Ascaris lumbricoides infection is associated with protection from cerebral malaria. Parasite Immunol 22 : 107–113. [Google Scholar]
  11. Keusch GT, Migasena P, 1982. Biological implications of poly-parasitism. Rev Infect Dis 4 : 880–882. [Google Scholar]
  12. Nacher M, Singhasivanon P, Yimsamran S, Manibunyong W, Thanyavanich N, Wuthisen R, Looareesuwan S, 2002. Intestinal helminth infections are associated with increased incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Thailand. J Parasitol 88 : 55–58. [Google Scholar]
  13. Le Hesran JY, Akiana J, Ndiaye el HM, Dia M, Senghor P, Konate L, 2004. Severe malaria attack is associated with high prevalence of Ascaris Lumbricoides infection among children in rural Senegal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98 : 397–399. [Google Scholar]
  14. Robert V, Dieng H, Lochouran L, Traore SF, Trape JF, Simondon F, Fontenille D, 1998. Malaria transmission in the rural zone of Niakhar, Senegal (French). Trop Med Int Health 3 : 667–677. [Google Scholar]
  15. WHO, 1998. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis and Schistosomiasis at the Community Level. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  16. McCulloch CE, Searle SR, 2001. Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  17. Mutapi F, Ndhlovu PD, Hagan P, Woolhouse ME, 2000. Anti-schistosome antibody responses in children coinfected with malaria. Parasite Immunol 22 : 207–209. [Google Scholar]
  18. Remoue F, Diallo TO, Angeli V, Hervé M, de Clercq D, Schacht AM, Charrier N, Capron M, Vercruysse J, Ly A, Capron A, Riveau G, 2003. Malaria coinfection in children influences antibodies response to schistosome antigens and inflammatory markers associated with morbidity. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97 : 361–364. [Google Scholar]
  19. Woolhouse MEJ, Watts CH, Chandiwana SK, 1991. Heterogeneities in transmission rates and the epidemiology of schistosome infection. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 245 : 109–114. [Google Scholar]
  20. Chandiwana SK, Woolhouse ME, 1991. Heterogeneities in water contacts patterns and the epidemiology of Schistosoma haematobium. Parasitology 103 : 363–370. [Google Scholar]
  21. Etard JF, Audibert M, Dabo A, 1995. Age-acquired resistance and predisposition to reinfection with Schistosoma haematobium after treatment with praziquantel in Mali. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52 : 549–558. [Google Scholar]
  22. Delley V, Bouvier P, Breslow N, Doumbo O, Sagara I, Diakite M, Mauris A, Dolo A, Rougemont A, 2000. What does a single determination of malaria parasite density mean? A longitudinal survey in Mali. Trop Med Int Health 5 : 404–412. [Google Scholar]
  23. Campagne G, Vera C, Barkire H, Tinni A, Tassie JM, Garba A, Sellin B, Chippaux JP, 1999. Preliminary evaluation of usable indicators during a control program for urinary bilharziosis in Niger. Med Trop (Mars) 59 : 243–248. [Google Scholar]
  24. Shankar AH, 2000. Nutritional modulation of malaria morbidity and mortality. J Infect Dis 182 : S616–S635. [Google Scholar]
  25. Weatherall DJ, Clegg JB, 2002. Genetic variability in response to infection: malaria and after. Genes Immun 3 : 331–337. [Google Scholar]
  26. Allen JE, Maizels RM, 1997. Th1-Th2: reliable paradigm or dangerous dogma? Immunol Today 18 : 387–392. [Google Scholar]
  27. Fallon PG, 2000. Immunopathology of schistosomiasis: a cautionary tale of mice and men. Immunol Today 21 : 29–35. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.702
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.702
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 16 Jul 2004
  • Accepted : 23 Dec 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error