1921
Volume 72, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

We developed a novel genotyping strategy based on the heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA) method commonly used to genotype viruses. Because it can detect both sequence and size polymorphisms, we hypothesized that HTA is more sensitive than current methods. To test this hypothesis, we compared the ability of HTA and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect genetic diversity in 17 Thai samples. The HTA detected more MSP1 sequence variants in eight isolates (47%), less sequence variants in three isolates (18%), and an equal number of sequence variants in six isolates (35%), suggesting that HTA is equal to or more sensitive than the nested PCR. This study is a proof of concept that HTA is a sensitive allelic discrimination method able to determine genetic diversity in and warrants its use in studies of antimalarial drug efficacy.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.694
2005-06-01
2017-11-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/72/6/0720694.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.694&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Tanabe K, Mackay M, Goman M, Scaife JG, 1987. Allelic dimorphism in a surface antigen gene of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. J Mol Biol 195 : 273–287.
  2. Ekala MT, Jouin H, Lekoulou F, Issifou S, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Ntoumi F, 2002. Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1): genotyping and humoral responses to allele-specific variants. Acta Trop 81 : 33–46.
  3. Miller LH, Roberts T, Shahabuddin M, McCutchan TF, 1993. Analysis of sequence diversity in the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1). Mol Biochem Parasitol 59 : 1–14.
  4. Hoffmann EH, Ribolla PE, Ferreira MU, 2003. Genetic relatedness of Plasmodium falciparum isolates and the origin of allelic diversity at the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) locus in Brazil and Vietnam. Malar J 2 : 24.
  5. Snounou G, Beck H-P, 1998. The Use of PCR genotyping in the assessment of recrudescence or reinfection after antimalarial drug treatment. Parasitol Today 14 : 462–467.
  6. Farnert A, Arez AP, Babiker HA, Beck HP, Benito A, Bjorkman A, Bruce MC, Conway DJ, Day KP, Henning L, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Ranford-Cartwright LC, Rubio JM, Snounou G, Walliker D, Zwetyenga J, do Rosario VE, 2001. Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum infections by PCR: a comparative multicentre study. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 : 225–232.
  7. Delwart EL, Sheppard HW, Walker BD, Goudsmit J, Mullins JI, 1994. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolution in vivo tracked by DNA heteroduplex mobility assays. J Virol 68 : 6672–6683.
  8. Kitrinos KM, Hoffman NG, Nelson JA, Swanstrom R, 2003. Turnover of env variable region 1 and 2 genotypes in subjects with late-stage human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol 77 : 6811–6822.
  9. Sitki-Green D, Edwards RH, Webster-Cyriaque J, Raab-Traub N, 2002. Identification of Epstein-Barr virus strain variants in hairy leukoplakia and peripheral blood by use of a heteroduplex tracking assay. J Virol 76 : 9645–9656.
  10. Pickard AL, Wongsrichanalai C, Purfield A, Kamwendo D, Emery K, Zalewski C, Kawamoto F, Miller RS, Meshnick SR, 2003. Resistance to antimalarials in Southeast Asia and genetic polymorphisms in pfmdr1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47 : 2418–2423.
  11. Mwapasa V, Rogerson SJ, Molyneux ME, Abrams ET, Kamwendo DD, Lema VM, Tadesse E, Chaluluka E, Wilson PE, Meshnick SR, 2004. The effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on peripheral and placental HIV-1 RNA concentrations in pregnant Malawian women. AIDS 18 : 1051–1059.
  12. Kimura M, Kaneko O, Inoue A, Ishii A, Tanabe K, 1995. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction of Plasmodium falciparum DNA from Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. Mol Biochem Parasitol 70 : 193–197.
  13. Upchurch DA, Shankarappa R, Mullins JI, 2000. Position and degree of mismatches and the mobility of DNA heteroduplexes. Nucleic Acids Res 28 : E69.
  14. Kamwendo DD, Dzinjalamala FK, Snounou G, Kanjala MC, Mhango CG, Molyneux ME, Rogerson SJ, 2002. Plasmodium falciparum: PCR detection and genotyping of isolates from peripheral, placental, and cord blood of pregnant Malawian women and their infants. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96 : 145–149.
  15. Snounou G, Viriyakosol S, Zhu XP, Jarra W, Pinheiro L, do Rosario VE, Thaithong S, Brown KN, 1993. High sensitivity of detection of human malaria parasites by the use of nested polymerase chain reaction. Mol Biochem Parasitol 61 : 315–320.
  16. Hartl DL, Volkman SK, Nielsen KM, Barry AE, Day KP, Wirth DF, Winzeler EA, 2002. The paradoxical population genetics of Plasmodium falciparum. Trends Parasitol 18 : 266–272.
  17. Kimura E, Mattei D, di Santi SM, Scherf A, 1990. Genetic diversity in the major merozoite surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum: high prevalence of a third polymorphic form detected in strains derived from malaria patients. Gene 91 : 57–62.
  18. Cattamanchi A, Kyabayinze D, Hubbard A, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, 2003. Distinguishing recrudescence from reinfection in a longitudinal antimalarial drug efficacy study: comparison of results based on genotyping of msp-1, msp-2, and glurp. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 133–139.
  19. Brockman A, Paul RE, Anderson TJ, Hackford I, Phaiphun L, Looareesuwan S, Nosten F, Day KP, 1999. Application of genetic markers to the identification of recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections on the northwestern border of Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 : 14–21.
  20. World Health Organization, 1996. Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy of Antimalarial Drugs for Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Areas with Intense Transmission. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  21. Snounou G, Singh B, 2002. Nested PCR analysis of Plasmodium parasites. Methods Mol Med 72 : 189–203.
  22. Ohrt C, Mirabelli-Primdahl L, Karnasuta C, Chantakulkij S, Kain KC, 1997. Distinguishing Plasmodium falciparum treatment failures from reinfections by restrictions fragment length polymorphism and polymerase chain reaction genotyping. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57 : 430–437.
  23. Kain KC, Craig AA, Ohrt C, 1996. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis differentiates Plasmodium falciparum treatment failures from re-infections. Mol Biochem Parasitol 79 : 167–175.
  24. Gasser RB, 1997. Mutation scanning methods for the analysis of parasite genes. Int J Parasitol 27 : 1449–1463.
  25. Resch W, Parkin N, Stuelke EL, Watkins T, Swanstrom R, 2001. A multiple-site-specific heteroduplex tracking assay as a tool for the study of viral population dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 : 176–181.
  26. Snewin VA, Herrera M, Sanchez G, Scherf A, Langsley G, Herrera S, 1991. Polymorphism of the alleles of the merozoite surface antigens MSA1 and MSA2 in Plasmodium falciparum wild isolates from Colombia. Mol Biochem Parasitol 49 : 265–275.
  27. Daubersies P, Sallenave-Sales S, Magne S, Trape JF, Contamin H, Fandeur T, Rogier C, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Druilhe P, 1996. Rapid turnover of Plasmodium falciparum populations in asymptomatic individuals living in a high transmission area. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54 : 18–26.
  28. Jafari S, Le Bras J, Bouchaud O, Durand R, 2004. Plasmodium falciparum clonal population dynamics during malaria treatment. J Infect Dis 189 : 195–203.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.694
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.694
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 28 May 2004
  • Accepted : 08 Dec 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error