1921
Volume 72, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Human neurocysticercosis, the infection of the nervous system by the larvae of , is a major cause of epileptic seizures and other neurologic morbidity worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of neurocysticercosis have been considerably improved in recent years. This improvement includes identification and sequencing of specific antigens and development of new assays for laboratory diagnosis, recognition of the frequency and significance of edema around old, calcified cysts (associated to symptomatic episodes), results of a randomized blinded control treatment trial on treatment efficacy for intraparenchymal disease showing a clinical benefit of decreased seizures, and a much better assessment of the frequency and spectrum of cerebrovascular complications. These advances now permit a much better integration of clinical, serologic, and imaging data for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.3
2005-01-01
2019-11-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/72/1/0720003.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.3&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Tsang V, Wilson M, 1995. Taenia solium cysticercosis, an under-recognized but serious public health problem. Parasitol Today 11 : 124–126. [Google Scholar]
  2. White AC Jr, 1997. Neurocysticercosis: a major cause of neurological disease worldwide. Clin Infect Dis 24 : 101–113. [Google Scholar]
  3. Nash TE, Neva FA, 1984. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral cysticercosis. N Engl J Med 311 : 1492–1496. [Google Scholar]
  4. Garcia HH, Del Brutto OH, 2003. Imaging findings in neurocysticercosis. Acta Trop 87 : 71–78. [Google Scholar]
  5. Nash TE, Patronas NJ, 1999. Edema associated with calcified lesions in neurocysticercosis. Neurology 53 : 777–781. [Google Scholar]
  6. Nash TE, Pretell J, Garcia HH, 2001. Calcified cysticerci provoke perilesional edema and seizures. Clin Infect Dis 33 : 1649–1653. [Google Scholar]
  7. Del Brutto OH, 1992. Cysticercosis and cerebrovascular disease: a review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55 : 252–254. [Google Scholar]
  8. Del Brutto OH, Sotelo J, Aguirre R, Diaz-Calderon E, Alarcon TA, 1992. Albendazole therapy for giant subarachnoid cysticerci. Arch Neurol 49 : 535–538. [Google Scholar]
  9. Berman JD, Beaver PC, Cheever AW, Quindlen EA, 1981. Cysticercus of 60-milliliter volume in human brain. Am J Trop Med Hyg 30 : 616–619. [Google Scholar]
  10. Proano JV, Madrazo I, Avelar F, Lopez-Felix B, Diaz G, Grijalva I, 2001. Medical treatment for neurocysticercosis characterized by giant subarachnoid cysts. N Engl J Med 345 : 879–885. [Google Scholar]
  11. Lobato RD, Lamas E, Portillo JM, Roger R, Esparza J, Rivas JJ, Munoz MJ, 1981. Hydrocephalus in cerebral cysticercosis. Pathogenic and therapeutic considerations. J Neurosurg 55 : 786–793. [Google Scholar]
  12. Estanol B, Kleriga E, Loyo M, Mateos H, Lombardo L, Gordon F, Saguchi AF, 1983. Mechanisms of hydrocephalus in cerebral cysticercosis: implications for therapy. Neurosurgery 13 : 119–123. [Google Scholar]
  13. Bickerstaff ER, Cloake PCP, Hughes B, Smith WT, 1952. The racemose form of cerebral cysticercosis. Brain 75 : 1–16. [Google Scholar]
  14. Del Brutto OH, 2002. Meningeal cysticercosis. Singh G, Prabhakar S, eds. Taenia solium Cysticercosis: From Basic to Clinical Science. Oxford, United Kingdom: CABI Publishing, 177–188.
  15. Pittella JE, 1997. Neurocysticercosis. Brain Pathol 7 : 681–693. [Google Scholar]
  16. Cantu C, Barinagarrementeria F, 1996. Cerebrovascular complications of neurocysticercosis. Clinical and neuroimaging spectrum. Arch Neurol 53 : 233–239. [Google Scholar]
  17. Barinagarrementeria F, Cantu C, 1998. Frequency of cerebral arteritis in subarachnoid cysticercosis: an angiographic study. Stroke 29 : 123–125. [Google Scholar]
  18. Nash TE, Del Brutto OH, Butman JA, Corona T, Delgado-Escueta A, Duron RM, Evans CAW, Gilman RH, Gonzalez AE, Loeb JA, Medina MT, Pietsch-Escueta S, Pretell EJ, Takayanagui OM, Theodore W, Tsang VCW, Garcia HH, 2004. Calcific neurocysticercosis and epileptogenesis. Neurology 62 : 1934–1938. [Google Scholar]
  19. Sanchez AL, Lindback J, Schantz PM, Sone M, Sakai H, Medina MT, Ljungstrom I, 1999. A population-based, case-control study of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 93 : 247–258. [Google Scholar]
  20. Cruz ME, Schantz PM, Cruz I, Espinosa P, Preux PM, Cruz A, Benitez W, Tsang VC, Fermoso J, Dumas M, 1999. Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in an Andean community. Int J Epidemiol 28 : 799–803. [Google Scholar]
  21. Garcia-Noval J, Moreno E, de Mata F, Soto de Alfaro H, Fletes C, Craig PS, Allan JC, 2001. An epidemiological study of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in two rural Guatemalan communities. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 95 : 167–175. [Google Scholar]
  22. Tsang VC, Brand JA, Boyer AE, 1989. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay and glycoprotein antigens for diagnosing human cysticercosis (Taenia solium). J Infect Dis 159 : 50–59. [Google Scholar]
  23. Hancock K, Khan A, Williams FB, Yushak ML, Pattabhi S, Noh J, Tsang VC, 2003. Characterization of the 8-kilodalton antigens of Taenia solium metacestodes and evaluation of their use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 2577–2586. [Google Scholar]
  24. Hancock K, Pattabhi S, Greene RM, Yushak ML, Williams F, Khan A, Priest JW, Levine MZ, Tsang VC, 2004. Characterization and cloning of GP50, a Taenia solium antigen diagnostic for cysticercosis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 133 : 115–124. [Google Scholar]
  25. Handali S, Gonzalez AE, Hancock K, Garcia HH, Roberts JM, Gilman RH, Tsang VC, 2004. Porcine antibody responses to Taenia solium antigens Rgp50 and Sts18var1. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 : 322–326. [Google Scholar]
  26. Estrada JJ, Kuhn RE, 1985. Immunochemical detection of antigens of larval Taenia solium and anti-larval antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurocysticercosis. J Neurol Sci 71 : 39–48. [Google Scholar]
  27. Correa D, Sandoval MA, Harrison LJ, Parkhouse RM, Plancarte A, Meza-Lucas A, Flisser A, 1989. Human neurocysticercosis: comparison of enzyme immunoassay capture techniques based on monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite products in cerebrospinal fluid. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83 : 814–816. [Google Scholar]
  28. Garcia HH, Harrison LJ, Parkhouse RM, Montenegro T, Martinez SM, Tsang VC, Gilman RH, 1998. A specific antigen-detection ELISA for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 : 411–414. [Google Scholar]
  29. Garcia HH, Parkhouse RM, Gilman RH, Montenegro T, Bernal T, Martinez SM, Gonzalez AE, Tsang VC, Harrison LJ; Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru, 2000. Serum antigen detection in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of neurocysticercosis patients. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 : 673–676. [Google Scholar]
  30. Wilkins PP, Allan JC, Verastegui M, Acosta M, Eason AG, Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH, Tsang VC, 1999. Development of a serologic assay to detect Taenia solium taeniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 : 199–204. [Google Scholar]
  31. Levine MZ, Calderon JC, Wilkins PP, Lane WS, Asara JM, Hancock K, Gonzalez AE, Garcia HH, Gilman RH, Tsang VC, 2004. Characterization, cloning and expression of two diagnostic antigens for Taenia solium tapeworm infection. J Parasitol 90 : 631–638. [Google Scholar]
  32. Del Brutto OH, Rajshekhar V, White AC Jr, Tsang VC, Nash TE, Takayanagui OM, Schantz PM, Evans CA, Flisser A, Correa D, Botero D, Allan JC, Sarti E, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH, Garcia HH, 2001. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis. Neurology 57 : 177–183. [Google Scholar]
  33. Bandres JC, White AC Jr, Samo T, Murphy EC, Harris RL, 1992. Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis: report of five cases and review of management. Clin Infect Dis 15 : 799–811. [Google Scholar]
  34. Cantu C, Villarreal J, Soto JL, Barinagarrementeria F, 1998. Cerebral cysticercotic arteritis: detection and follow-up by transcranial Doppler. Cerebrovasc Dis 8 : 2–7. [Google Scholar]
  35. Braga F, Rocha AJ, Gomes HR, Filho GH, Silva CJ, Fonseca RB, 2004. Noninvasive MR cisternography with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and 100% supplemental O(2) in the evaluation of neurocysticercosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25 : 295–297. [Google Scholar]
  36. Martinez HR, Rangel-Guerra R, Elizondo G, Gonzalez J, Todd LE, Ancer J, Prakash SS, 1989. MR imaging in neurocysticercosis: a study of 56 cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 10 : 1011–1019. [Google Scholar]
  37. Del Brutto OH, 1997. Neurocysticercosis in children: clinical and radiological analysis and prognostic factors in 54 patients. Rev Neurol 25 : 1681–1684. [Google Scholar]
  38. Kramer LD, Locke GE, Byrd SE, Daryabagi J, 1989. Cerebral cysticercosis: documentation of natural history with CT. Radiology 171 : 459–462. [Google Scholar]
  39. Garcia HH, Evans CA, Nash TE, Takayanagui OM, White AC Jr, Botero D, Rajshekhar V, Tsang VC, Schantz PM, Allan JC, Flisser A, Correa D, Sarti E, Friedland JS, Martinez SM, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH, Del Brutto OH, 2002. Current consensus guidelines for treatment of neurocysticercosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 15 : 747–756. [Google Scholar]
  40. Garcia HH, Pretell EJ, Gilman RH, Martinez SM, Moulton LH, Del Brutto OH, Herrera G, Evans CA, Gonzalez AE; Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru, 2004. A trial of antiparasitic treatment to reduce the rate of seizures due to cerebral cysticercosis. N Engl J Med 350 : 249–258. [Google Scholar]
  41. Corona T, Lugo R, Medina R, Sotelo J, 1996. Single-day praziquantel therapy for neurocysticercosis. N Engl J Med 334 : 125. [Google Scholar]
  42. Sotelo J, del Brutto OH, Penagos P, Escobedo F, Torres B, Rodriguez-Carbajal J, Rubio-Donnadieu F, 1990. Comparison of therapeutic regimen of anticysticercal drugs for parenchymal brain cysticercosis. J Neurol 237 : 69–72. [Google Scholar]
  43. Pretell EJ, Garcia HH, Gilman RH, Saavedra H, Martinez M, 2001. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Failure of one-day praziquantel treatment in patients with multiple neurocysticercosis lesions. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 103 : 175–177. [Google Scholar]
  44. Vazquez ML, Jung H, Sotelo J, 1987. Plasma levels of praziquantel decrease when dexamethasone is given simultaneously. Neurology 37 : 1561–1562. [Google Scholar]
  45. Rajshekhar V, 1991. Etiology and management of single small CT lesions in patients with seizures: understanding a controversy. Acta Neurol Scand 84 : 465–470. [Google Scholar]
  46. Kalra V, Dua T, Kumar V, 2003. Efficacy of albendazole and short-course dexamethasone treatment in children with 1 or 2 ring-enhancing lesions of neurocysticercosis: a randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr 143 : 111–114. [Google Scholar]
  47. Mall RK, Agarwal A, Garg RK, Kar AM, Shukla R, 2003. Short course of prednisolone in Indian patients with solitary cysticercus granuloma and new-onset seizures. Epilepsia 44 : 1397–1401. [Google Scholar]
  48. Sotelo J, Marin C, 1987. Hydrocephalus secondary to cysticercotic arachnoiditis. A long-term follow-up review of 92 cases. J Neurosurg 66 : 686–689. [Google Scholar]
  49. McCormick GF, 1985. Cysticercosis–review of 230 patients. Bull Clin Neurosci 50 : 76–101. [Google Scholar]
  50. Del Brutto OH, 1997. Albendazole therapy for subarachnoid cysticerci: clinical and neuroimaging analysis of 17 patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 62 : 659–661. [Google Scholar]
  51. Del Brutto OH, 1997. Clues to prevent cerebrovascular hazards of cysticidal drug therapy. Stroke 28 : 1088. [Google Scholar]
  52. Schantz PM, Wilkins PP, Tsang VCW, 1998. Immigrants, imaging and immunoblots: the emergence of neurocysticercosis as a significant public health problem. Scheld WM, Craig WA, Hughes JM, eds. Emerging Infections 2. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology Press, 213–241.
  53. Jeri C, Gilman RH, Lescano AG, Mayta H, Ramirez ME, Gonzalez AE, Nazerali R, Garcia HH, 2004. Species diagnosis after treatment for human taeniasis. Lancet 363 : 949–950. [Google Scholar]
  54. Garcia HH, Martinez SM, 1996. Teniasis/cysticercosis por Taenia solium. Lima: Ed. Universo, 360.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.3
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.72.3
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 28 Apr 2004
  • Accepted : 28 Apr 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error