Volume 72, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


The gold standard serodiagnostic assay for cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis, diseases caused by the metacestode of , uses lentil lectin-purified glycoprotein (LLGP) in a Western blot assay. We tested two antigens derived from LLGP, synthetic TS18var1 (sTS18var1) and recombinant GP50 antigen (rGP50), in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The sensitivity for serum and CSF was 94.7% and 100% for rGP50 and 90.4% and 90.2% for sTS18var1, respectively. The specificity for serum and CSF samples was 93.8% and 100% for rGP50 and 90.3% and 98.0% for sTS18var1, respectively. The use of these antigens individually or combined as a diagnostic antigen cocktail eliminates the need for purification of antigens from parasite material and offers the advantage of using a simple and quantitative ELISA format.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. White AC Jr, 1997. Neurocysticercosis: a major cause of neurological disease worldwide. Clin Infect Dis 24:101–113; quiz 114–115.
  2. Carpio A, 2002. Neurocysticercosis: an update. Lancet Infect Dis 2 : 751–762.
  3. Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Evans CA, Gilman RH, 2003. Taenia solium cysticercosis. Lancet 362 : 547–556.
  4. Gemmell M, Matyas Z, Pawlowski Z, Soulsby EJL, 1983. Guideline for Surveillance Prevention and Control of Taeniasis/ Cysticercosis. Geneva: World Health Organizaton, 69–75.
  5. Roman G, Sotelo J, Del Brutto O, Flisser A, Dumas M, Wadia N, Botero D, Cruz M, Garcia H, de Bittencourt PR, Trelles L, Arriagada C, Lorenzana P, Nash TE, Spina-Franca A, 2000. A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease. Bull World Health Organ 78 : 399–406.
  6. Bern C, Garcia HH, Evans C, Gonzalez AE, Verastegui M, Tsang VC, Gilman RH, 1999. Magnitude of the disease burden from neurocysticercosis in a developing country. Clin Infect Dis 29 : 1203–1209.
  7. Moore AC, Lutwick LI, Schantz PM, Pilcher JB, Wilson M, High-tower AW, Chapnick EK, Abter EI, Grossman JR, Fried JA, Ware DA, Haichou X, Hyon SS, Barbour RL, Antor R, Hakim A, 1995. Seroprevalence of cysticercosis in an Orthodox Jewish community. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53 : 439–442.
  8. Ong S, Talan DA, Moran GJ, Mower W, Newdow M, Tsang VC, Pinner RW, 2002. Neurocysticercosis in radiographically imaged seizure patients in U.S. emergency departments. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 608–613.
  9. Schantz PM, Wilkins PP, Tsang VCW, 1998. Immigrants, imaging, and immunoblots: the emergence of neurocysticercosis as a significant public health problem. Scheld WM, Craig WA, Hughes JM, eds. Emerging Infections 2. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology Press, 213–242.
  10. Carpio A, Escobar A, Hauser WA, 1998. Cysticercosis and epilepsy: a critical review. Epilepsia 39 : 1025–1040.
  11. White AC Jr, 2000. Neurocysticercosis: updates on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Annu Rev Med 51 : 187–206.
  12. Del Brutto OH, Rajshekhar V, White AC Jr, Tsang VC, Nash TE, Takayanagui OM, Schantz PM, Evans CA, Flisser A, Correa D, Botero D, Allan JC, Sarti E, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH, Garcia HH, 2001. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis. Neurology 57 : 177–183.
  13. Sciutto E, Fragoso G, Fleury A, Laclette JP, Sotelo J, Aluja A, Vargas L, Larralde C, 2000. Taenia solium disease in humans and pigs: an ancient parasitosis disease rooted in developing countries and emerging as a major health problem of global dimensions. Microbes Infect 2 : 1875–1890.
  14. Garcia HH, Herrera G, Gilman RH, Tsang VC, Pilcher JB, Diaz JF, Candy EJ, Miranda E, Naranjo J, 1994. Discrepancies between cerebral computed tomography and western blot in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru (Clinical Studies Coordination Board). Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 : 152–157.
  15. Garcia HH, Gilman RH, Tovar MA, Flores E, Jo R, Tsang VC, Diaz F, Torres P, Miranda E, 1995. Factors associated with Taenia solium cysticercosis: analysis of nine hundred forty-six Peruvian neurologic patients. Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru (CWG). Am J Trop Med Hyg 52 : 145–148.
  16. Gonzalez AE, Gilman R, Garcia HH, McDonald J, Kacena K, Tsang VC, Pilcher JB, Suarez F, Gavidia C, Miranda E, 1994. Use of sentinel pigs to monitor environmental Taenia solium contamination. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru (CWG). Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 : 847–850.
  17. Garcia HH, Gilman RH, Gonzalez AE, Verastegui M, Rodriguez S, Gavidia C, Tsang VC, Falcon N, Lescano AG, Moulton LH, Bernal T, Tovar M, 2003. Hyperendemic human and porcine Taenia solium infection in Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 268–275.
  18. Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Gavidia C, Falcon N, Bernal T, Verastegui M, Rodriguez S, Tsang VC, Gilman RH, 2003. Sero-incidence of porcine T. solium infection in the Peruvian highlands. Prev Vet Med 57 : 227–236.
  19. Tsang VC, Brand JA, Boyer AE, 1989. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay and glycoprotein antigens for diagnosing human cysticercosis (Taenia solium). J Infect Dis 159 : 50–59.
  20. Pan American Health Organization, 1997. PAHO/WHO Informal Consultation of the Taeniosis/Cysticercosis Complex. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization.
  21. Proano-Narvaez JV, Meza-Lucas A, Mata-Ruiz O, Garcia-Jeronimo RC, Correa D, 2002. Laboratory diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis: double-blind comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electroimmunotransfer blot assay. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 2115–2118.
  22. Wilson M, Bryan RT, Fried JA, Ware DA, Schantz PM, Pilcher JB, Tsang VC, 1991. Clinical evaluation of the cysticercosis enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot in patients with neurocysticercosis. J Infect Dis 164 : 1007–1009.
  23. Palacio LG, Jimenez I, Garcia HH, Jimenez ME, Sanchez JL, Noh J, Ahn L, Mora O, Giraldo M, Tsang VC, 1998. Neurocysticercosis in persons with epilepsy in Medellin, Colombia. The Neuroepidemiological Research Group of Antioquia. Epilepsia 39 : 1334–1339.
  24. Aguilar-Rebolledo F, Meza-Lucas A, Torres J, Cedillo-Rivera R, Enciso A, Garcia RC, Munoz O, Correa D, 2002. Evaluation of the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in children. J Child Neurol 17 : 416–420.
  25. Hancock K, Pattabhi S, Greene RM, Yushak ML, Williams F, Khan A, Priest JW, Levine MZ, Tsang VC, 2004. Characterization and cloning of GP50, a Taenia solium antigen diagnostic for cysticercosis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 133 : 115–124.
  26. Hancock K, Khan A, Williams FB, Yushak ML, Pattabhi S, Noh J, Tsang VC, 2003. Characterization of the 8-kilodalton antigens of Taenia solium metacestodes and evaluation of their use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 2577–2586.
  27. Greene RM, Wilkins PP, Tsang VC, 1999. Diagnostic glycoproteins of Taenia solium cysts share homologous 14- and 18-kDa subunits. Mol Biochem Parasitol 99 : 257–261.
  28. Greene RM, Hancock K, Wilkins PP, Tsang VC, 2000. Taenia solium: molecular cloning and serologic evaluation of 14- and 18-kDa related, diagnostic antigens. J Parasitol 86 : 1001–1007.
  29. Bueno EC, Vaz AJ, Machado LD, Livramento JA, Mielle SR, 2000. Specific Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium antigenic peptides for neurocysticercosis immunodiagnosis using serum samples. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 146–151.
  30. Hancock K, Tsang VC, 1986. Development and optimization of the FAST-ELISA for detecting antibodies to Schistosoma mansoni. J Immunol Methods 92 : 167–176.
  31. Tsang VC, Greene RM, Pilcher JB, 1995. Optimization of the covalent conjugating procedure (NaIO4) of horseradish per-oxidase to antibodies for use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Immunoassay 16 : 395–418.
  32. Youden WJ, 1950. Index for rating diagnostic tests. Cancer 3 : 32–35.
  33. Tomiya N, Betenbaugh MJ, Lee YC, 2003. Humanization of lepidopteran insect-cell-produced glycoproteins. Acc Chem Res 36 : 613–620.
  34. Altmann F, Staudacher E, Wilson IB, Marz L, 1999. Insect cells as hosts for the expression of recombinant glycoproteins. Glycoconj J 16 : 109–123.
  35. Martinez AP, Margos G, Barker G, Sinden RE, 2000. The roles of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor on the production and immunogenicity of recombinant ookinete surface antigen Pbs21 of Plasmodium berghei when prepared in a baculovirus expression system. Parasite Immunol 22 : 493–500.
  36. Striepen B, Zinecker CF, Damm JB, Melgers PA, Gerwig GJ, Koolen M, Vliegenthart JF, Dubremetz JF, Schwarz RT, 1997. Molecular structure of the “low molecular weight antigen” of Toxoplasma gondii: a glucose alpha 1-4 N-acetylgalactosamine makes free glycosylphosphatidylinositols highly immunogenic. J Mol Biol 266 : 797–813.
  37. Kukulansky T, Abramovitch S, Hollander N, 1999. Cleavage of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor affects the reactivity of thy-1 with antibodies. J Immunol 162 : 5993–5997.
  38. Barboni E, Rivero BP, George AJ, Martin SR, Renoup DV, Hounsell EF, Barber PC, Morris RJ, 1995. The glycophosphatidylinositol anchor affects the conformation of Thy-1 protein. J Cell Sci 108 : 487–497.
  39. Butikofer P, Malherbe T, Boschung M, Roditi I, 2001. GPI-anchored proteins: now you see ‘em, now you don’t. FASEB J 15 : 545–548.
  40. Kojic EM, White AC Jr, 2003. A positive enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay result for a patient without evidence of cysticercosis. Clin Infect Dis 36 : e7–e9.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 09 Jul 2004
  • Accepted : 09 Oct 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error