Volume 72, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


We compared malaria indicators among sympatric groups to study human heterogeneities in the response to malaria infection. Four cross-sectional surveys and two longitudinal surveys in two sympatric ethnic groups (Dogon and Fulani) in Mali were carried out from 1998 to 2000. Spleen and parasite rates were evaluated during the cross-sectional surveys and disease incidence was assessed during longitudinal surveys. In spite of similar sociocultural factors and entomologic inoculation rates between ethnic groups, the Fulani had a significantly higher spleen enlargement rate, lower parasite rate, and were less affected by the disease than the Dogon group, whose frequency of hemoglobin C was higher than that recorded among the Fulani group. The Fulani group had significantly higher levels of IgG and IgE against crude malaria antigen than the Dogon group, suggesting a role of anti-malaria antibodies in the immune protection seen in this group.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. World Health Organization, 1992. A Global Strategy for Malaria Control. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  2. Shiff C, 2002. Integrated approach to malaria control. Clin Microbiol Rev 15 : 278–293. [Google Scholar]
  3. Hill AVS, 1996. Genetic susceptibility to malaria and other infectious diseases: from the MHC to the whole genome. Parasitology 112 : S75–S84. [Google Scholar]
  4. Bryceson ADM, Fleming AF, Edington GM, 1976. Splenomegaly in northern Nigeria. Acta Trop 33 : 424–426. [Google Scholar]
  5. Greenwood BM, Groenendaal F, Bradley AK, Greenwood AM, Shenton F, Tulloch S, Hayes R, 1987. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of splenomegaly and malaria in The Gambia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 81 : 345–354. [Google Scholar]
  6. Piazza A, Mayr WR, Contu L, Amoroso A, Borelli I, Curtoni ES, Marcello C, Moroni A, Olivetti E, Richiardi P, Ceppellini R, 1985. Genetic and population structure of four Sardinians villages. Ann Hum Genet 49 : 47–63. [Google Scholar]
  7. Terrenato L, Shrestha S, Dixit KA, Luzzato L, Modiano G, Morpurgo G, Arese P, 1988. Decreased malaria morbidity in the Tharu people compared to the sympatric populations in Nepal. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 82 : 1–11. [Google Scholar]
  8. Modiano D, Petrarca V, Sirima BS, Bosman A, Nebié I, Diallo D, Lamizana L, Esposito F, Coluzzi M, 1995. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sympatric ethnic groups of Burkina Faso, west Africa. Parassitologia 37 : 255–259. [Google Scholar]
  9. Modiano D, Petrarca V, Sirima BS, Nebié I, Diallo D, Esposito F, Coluzzi M, 1996. Different response to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in west Africa sympatric ethnic groups. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93 : 13206–13211. [Google Scholar]
  10. Modiano D, Chiucchiuini A, Petrarca V, Sirima BS, Gaia L, Perlmann H, Coluzzi M, Esposito F, 1998. Humoral response to Plasmodium falciparum Pf155/Ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen and Pf332 in three sympatric ethnic groups of Burkina Faso. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58 : 220–224. [Google Scholar]
  11. Modiano D, Chiucchiuini A, Vincenzo P, Sirima BS, Gaia L, Roggero MA, Corradin G, Coluzzi M, Esposito F, 1999. Inter-ethnic differences in the humoral response to non-repetitive regions of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 : 663–667. [Google Scholar]
  12. Moore CG, Gage KL, 1996. Collecting methods for vector surveillance. Beaty BJ, Marquardt WC, eds. The Biology of Disease Vectors. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 471–492.
  13. Centers for Disease Control, 1984. Laboratory Methods for Detecting Hemoglobinopathies. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services/Public Health Service.
  14. Scheider RG, 1978. Methods for detection of hemoglobin variants and hemoglobinopathies in the routine clinical laboratory. CRC Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 9 : 243–271. [Google Scholar]
  15. Troye-Blomberg M, Perlmann H, Patarroyo ME, Perlmann P, 1983. Regulation of the immune response in Plasmodium falciparum malaria II. Antigen specific proliferative responses in vitro. Clin Exp Immunol 53 : 345–353. [Google Scholar]
  16. Wahlgren M, Berzins K, Perlmann P, Bjorkman A, 1983. Characterization of the humoral immune response in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. I. Estimation of antibodies to P. falciparum or human erythrocytes by means of a microELISA. Clin Exp Immunol 54 : 127–134. [Google Scholar]
  17. Perlmann H, Helmby H, Hagstedt M, Carlson J, Larsson PH, Troye Blomberg M, Perlmann P, 1994. IgE elevation and IgE anti-malarial antibodies in Plasmodium falciparum malaria: association of high IgE levels with cerebral malaria. Clin Exp Immunol 97 : 284–292. [Google Scholar]
  18. Riley EM, Allen SJ, Troye Blomberg M, Bennett S, Perlmann H, Anderson G, Smedman L, Perlmann P, Greenwood BM, 1991. Association between immune recognition of the malaria vaccine candidate antigen Pf155/RESA and resistance to clinical disease: a prospective study in amalaria endemic region of west Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85 : 436–443. [Google Scholar]
  19. Perlmann H, Perlmann P, ElGhazali G, Troye Blomberg M, 1999. IgE and tumor necrosis factor in malaria infection. Immunol Lett 65 : 29–33. [Google Scholar]
  20. Perlmann P, Perlmann H, Looareesuwan S, Krudsood S, Kano S, Matsumoto Y, Troye-Blomberg M, Aikawa M, 2000. Contrasting functions of IgG and IgE antimalarial antibodies in uncomplicated and severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 : 373–377. [Google Scholar]
  21. Hansen DS, Siomos MA, De Koning-Ward T, Buckingham L, Crabb BS, Schofield L, 2003. CD1d-restricted NKT cells contribute to malarial splenomegaly and enhance parasite-specific antibody response. Eur J Immunol 33 : 2588–2598. [Google Scholar]
  22. Brabin L, Burkot TR, Brabin BJ, Crane GG, Forsyth KP, Alpers MP, van der Kaay HJ, 1990. The relationship between splenomegaly and antibody to circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum in two groups of women with high and low enlarged spleen rates in Madang, Papua New Guinea. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84 : 40–45. [Google Scholar]
  23. Agarwal A, Guindo A, Coulibaly Y, Taylor JG, Coulibaly D, Kone A, Kayentao K, Djimde A, Plowe C, Doumbo O, Wellems T, Diallo D, 2000. Hemoglobin C associated with protection from severe malaria in the Dogon of Mali, a west African population with a low prevalence of hemoglobin S. Blood 96 : 2358–2362. [Google Scholar]
  24. Nacher M, Singhasivanon P, Treeprasertsuk S, Vannaphan S, Traore B, Looareesuwan S, Gay F, 2002. Intestinal helminthes and malnutrition are independently associated with protection from cerebral malaria in Thailand. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 : 5–13. [Google Scholar]
  25. Nacher M, Singhasivanon P, Traore B, Vannaphan S, Gay F, Chindanond D, Franetich JF, Mazier D, Looareesuwan S, 2002. Helminth infections are associated with protection from cerebral malaria and increased nitrogen derivatives concentrations in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 304–309. [Google Scholar]
  26. Luoni G, Verra F, Arca B, Sirima B, Troye-Blomberg M, Coluzzi M, Kwiatkowski D, Modiano D, 2001. Antimalarial antibody levels and IL-4 polymorphism in the Fulani of west Africa; IL-4 polymorphism and anti-P.falciparum levels. Genes Immun 2 : 411–414. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 24 Jun 2004
  • Accepted : 04 Sep 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error