Volume 72, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


A study was undertaken in villages endemic for Japanese encephalitis (JE) in Kerala in southern India during the period 1998–2001 to determine the host-feeding pattern of the major vector of JE in southeast Asia. A total of 3,067 blood-engorged were tested and 2,553 (82.2%) of the samples could be identified. had fed mainly (56.6%) on cattle. Pig feeding accounted 6.3% of the total samples. Some samples (n = 980, 38.3%) were of serologic mixed origin. Of 980 mixed blood-fed mosquitoes, 975 (99.5%) had imbibed blood from two distinct hosts and 5 (0.5%) imbibed blood from three distinct hosts. Mixed blood meals were mostly (96.7%) from cattle and goats. The epidemiologic implications of multiple feeding of on dampening (dead-end) hosts such as cattle and goats in the transmission of JE virus is discussed.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Vaughn DW, Hoke CH, 1992. The epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis: prospects for prevention. Epidemiol Rev 14 : 197–221. [Google Scholar]
  2. Endy TP, Nisalak A, 2002. Japanese encephalitis virus: ecology and epidemiology. Cur Top Microbiol Immunol 267 : 11–48. [Google Scholar]
  3. DeFoliart GR, Grimstad PR, Watts DM, 1987. Advances in mosquito-borne arbovirus/vector research. Annu Rev Entomol 32 : 479–505. [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson RA, Brust RA, 1995. Field evidence of multiple host contacts during blood feeding by Culex tarsalis, Cx. restuans and Cx. nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 32 : 95–101. [Google Scholar]
  5. Macdonald G, 1957. The Epidemiology and Control of Malaria. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
  6. Garrett-Jones C, 1964. Prognosis for interruption of malaria transmission through assessment of the mosquito’s vectorial capacity. Nature 204 : 1173–1174. [Google Scholar]
  7. Scott TW, McLean RG, Francy DB, Card CS, 1983. A simulation model for the vector-host transmission system of a mosquito-borne avian virus, Turlock (Bunyaviridae). J Med Entomol 20 : 625–640. [Google Scholar]
  8. Boreham PFL, Garrett-Jones C, 1973. Prevalence of mixed blood meals and double feeding in a malaria vector (Anopheles sacharovi, Favre). Bull World Health Organ 48 : 605–614. [Google Scholar]
  9. Burkot TR, Graves PM, Paru R, Lagog M, 1988. Mixed blood feeding by the malaria vectors in the Anopheles punctulatus complex (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 25 : 205–213. [Google Scholar]
  10. Mahmood F, Crans WJ, 1997. Observations on multiple blood feeding in field collected Culiseta melanura. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 13 : 156–157. [Google Scholar]
  11. Wekesa JW, Yuval B, Washino RK, 1997. Multiple blood feeding by Anopheles freeborni and Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae): Spatial and Temporal Variation. J Med Entomol 34 : 219–225. [Google Scholar]
  12. Amerasinghe PH, Amerasinghe FP, 1999. Multiple host feeding in field populations of Anopheles culicifacies and An. subpictus in Sri Lanka. Med Vet Entomol 13 : 124–131. [Google Scholar]
  13. Collins RT, Dash BK, Agarwala RS, Dhal KB, 1986. An adaptation of the gel diffusion technique for identifying the source of mosquito blood meals. Indian J Malariol 23 : 81–89. [Google Scholar]
  14. Reuben R, Thenmozhi V, Samuel PP, Gajanana A, Mani TR, 1992. Mosquito blood feeding patterns as a factor in the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in southern India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 46 : 654–663. [Google Scholar]
  15. Edman JD, Scott TW, 1987. Host defensive behavior and the feeding success of mosquitoes. Insect Sci Applic 8 : 617–622. [Google Scholar]
  16. Edman JD, Kale HW, Webber LA, 1972. Effect of mosquito density on the interrelationship of host behavior and mosquito feeding success. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21 : 487–491. [Google Scholar]
  17. Magnarelli LA, 1979. Feeding behavior of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on man, raccoons and white-footed mice. Ann Entomol Soc Am 72 : 62–166. [Google Scholar]
  18. Griffiths RB, Gordon RM, 1952. An apparatus which enables the process of feeding by mosquitoes to be observed in the tissues of live rodent; together with an account of the saliva and its significance. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 33 : 259–278. [Google Scholar]
  19. Hurlbut HS, 1966. Mosquito salivation and virus transmission. Am J Med Trop Hyg 15 : 989–993. [Google Scholar]
  20. Lorenz LH, Scoot TW, 1996. Detection of multiple blood feeding in Cs. melanura. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12 : 135–136. [Google Scholar]
  21. Hadis M, Lulu M, Makonnen Y, Asfaw T, 1997. Host choice by indoor-resting Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 : 376–378. [Google Scholar]
  22. Bruce-Chwatt LJ, Garrett-Jones C, Weitz B, 1966. Ten years study (1955–1964) of host selection by anopheline mosquitoes. Bull World Health Organ 35 : 405–439. [Google Scholar]
  23. Ritchie S, van den Hurk A, Shield J, 1997. The 1995 Japanese encephalitis outbreak: why Badu? Arbovirus Res Aust 7 : 224–227. [Google Scholar]
  24. van den Hurk AF, Ritchie SA, 1997. Japanese encephalitis in the Torres Strait: surveillance of suspected vectors. Arbovirus Res Aust 7 : 105–111. [Google Scholar]
  25. van den Hurk AF, Johansen CA, Zborowski P, Paru R, Foley PN, Beebe NW, Mackenzie JS, Ritchie SA, 2003. Mosquito host-feeding patterns and implications for Japanese encephalitis virus transmission in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Med Vet Entomol 17 : 403–411. [Google Scholar]
  26. Mwandawiro C, Boots M, Tuno N, Suwonkerd W, Tsuda Y, Takagi M, 2000. Heterogeneity in the host preference of Japanese encephalitis vectors in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 : 238–242. [Google Scholar]
  27. Colless DH, 1959. Notes on the culicine mosquitoes of Singapore. VII. Host preferences in relation to the transmission of disease. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 53 : 259–267. [Google Scholar]
  28. Pennington NE, Phelps CA, 1968. Identification of the host range of Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes on Okinawa, Ryuku Islands. J Med Entomol 5 : 483–487. [Google Scholar]
  29. Mitchell CJ, Chen PS, Boreham PFL, 1973. Host-feeding patterns of four Culex species in an endemic area of Japanese encephalitis. Bull World Health Organ 49 : 293–299. [Google Scholar]
  30. Christopher S, Reuben R, 1971. Studies on the mosquitoes of North Arcot District, Madras State India. Part 4: Host preferences as shown by precipitin tests. J Med Entomol 8 : 314–318. [Google Scholar]
  31. Carey DE, Reuben R, Myers RM, 1969. Japanese encephalitis studies in Vellore, south India. Part V. Experimental infection and transmission. Indian J Med Res 57 : 282–289. [Google Scholar]
  32. Ilkal MA, Dhanda V, Rao BU, George S, Mishra AC, Prasanna Y, Gopalakrishna S, Pavri KM, 1988. Absence of viraemia in cattle after experimental infection with Japanese encephalitis virus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82 : 628–631. [Google Scholar]
  33. Gajanana A, Thenmozhi V, Samuel PP, Reuben R, 1995. A community-based study of subclinical flavivirus infections in children in an area of Tamil Nadu, India, where Japanese encephalitis is endemic. Bull World Health Organ 73 : 237–244. [Google Scholar]
  34. Vijayarani H, Gajanana A, 2000. Low rate of Japanese encephalitis infection in rural children in Thanjavur district (Tamil Nadu), an area with extensive paddy cultivation. Indian J Med Res 111 : 212–214. [Google Scholar]
  35. Thein S, Aung H, Sebastian AA, 1988. Study of vector, amplifier, and human infection with Japanese encephalitis virus in a Rangoon community. Am J Epidemiol 128 : 1376–1383. [Google Scholar]
  36. Peiris JSM, Amerasinghe FP, Amerasinghe PH, Ratnayke CB, Karunaratne SHPP, Tsai TF, 1992. Japanese encephalitis in Sri Lanka—the study of an epidemic: vector incrimination, porcine infection and human disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86 : 307–313. [Google Scholar]
  • Received : 09 Jun 2004
  • Accepted : 13 Aug 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error