Volume 72, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


The extent of gene polymorphisms associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was examined in field isolates of from Indonesia. Eight malaria-endemic areas, representing a broad region of the western and eastern Indonesian Archipelago were surveyed. Blood from 20–50 patients was collected at each site, DNA was isolated, and the sequences of four different genes (dihydrofolate reductase [], dihydropteroate synthase [], multidrug resistance 1 [], and chloroquine resistance transporter []) were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphisms to detect polymorphisms previously shown to be associated with resistance. This analysis identified polymorphisms in at 108-Asn/Thr, 16-Val, and 59-Arg. Polymorphisms in were found less frequently, either 437-Gly alone or paired with 540-Glu. The 76-Thr polymorphism was fixed in all parasite populations and 1 86-Tyr polymorphisms in all populations except in the most eastern regions. The 1042-Asp polymorphism occurred less frequently. These findings indicate that polymorphisms in genes associated with drug resistance in are found across a broad region of Indonesia.


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  • Received : 06 Jan 2004
  • Accepted : 26 Jul 2004

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