Volume 71, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Therapeutic failure in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient with visceral leishmaniasis was due to mixed infection by two different zymodemes: zymodeme MON-98, which is a rare zymodeme and is reported for the first time in Greece, and zymodeme MON-1, which is common in the Mediterranean region. The two strains were isolated from two samples of bone marrow from the patient obtained before the administration of treatment and 20 days later, since there was no improvement in the clinical signs. The zymodemes MON-98 and MON-1 exhibited different behaviors and showed different sensitivities to meglumine antimoniate and , as shown by clinical findings. Mixed infections with different strains may explain the differences in the clinical course of leishmaniasis in many patients and may be the reason for treatment failures.


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  • Received : 12 Nov 2003
  • Accepted : 16 Mar 2004

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