Volume 71, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and West Nile (WN) flaviviruses are genetically closely related and cocirculate in the United States. Virus neutralization tests provide the most specific means for serodiagnosis of infections with these viruses. However, use of wild-type SLE and WN viral strains for laboratory testing is constrained by the biocontainment requirements. We constructed two highly attenuated yellow fever (YF) virus chimeras that contain the premembrane-envelope (prM-E) protein genes from the virulent MSI-7 (isolated in the United States) or the naturally attenuated CorAn9124 (Argentina) SLE strains. The YF/SLE (CorAn version) virus and the previously constructed YF/WN chimera were shown to specifically distinguish between confirmed human SLE and WN cases in a virus neutralization test using patient sera. These chimeras have the potential for use as diagnostic reagents and vaccines against SLE and WN.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Burke DS, Monath TP, 2001. Flaviviruses. Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Martin MA, Roizman B, Straus SE, eds. Fields Virology. Fourth edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 1043–1126.
  2. Lanciotti RS, Roehrig JT, Deubel V, Smith J, Parker M, Steele K, Crise B, Volpe KE, Crabtree MB, Scherret JH, Hall RA, MacKenzie JS, Cropp CB, Panigrahy B, Ostlund E, Schmitt B, Malkinson M, Banet C, Weissman J, Komar N, Savage HM, Stone W, McNamara T, Gubler DJ, 1999. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science 286 : 2333–2337. [Google Scholar]
  3. Lindenbach BD, Rice CM, 2001. Flaviviridae: the viruses and their replication. Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Martin MA, Roizman B, Straus SE, eds. Fields Virology. Fourth edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 991–1041.
  4. Pugachev KV, Guirakhoo F, Trent DW, Monath TP, 2003. Traditional and novel approaches to flavivirus vaccines. Int J Parasitol 33 : 567–582. [Google Scholar]
  5. Arroyo J, Miller CA, Catalan J, Monath TP, 2001. Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development. Trends Mol Med 7 : 350–354. [Google Scholar]
  6. Guirakhoo F, Zhang Z-X, Chambers TJ, Delagrave S, Arroyo J, Barrett AD, Monath TP, 1999. Immunogenicity, genetic stability, and protective efficacy of a recombinant, chimeric yellow fever-Japanese encephalitis virus (ChimeriVax™-JE) as a live, attenuated vaccine candidate against Japanese encephalitis. Virology 257 : 363–372. [Google Scholar]
  7. Guirakhoo F, Arroyo J, Pugachev KV, Miller C, Zhang ZX, Weltzin R, Georgakopoulos K, Catalan J, Ocran S, Soike K, Ratterree M, Monath TP, 2001. Construction, safety, and immunogenicity in nonhuman primates of a chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus tetravalent vaccine. J Virol 75 : 7290–7304. [Google Scholar]
  8. Guirakhoo F, Pugachev K, Arroyo J, Miller C, Zhang ZX, Weltzin R, Georgakopoulos K, Catalan J, Ocran S, Draper K, Monath TP, 2002. Viremia and immunogenicity in nonhuman primates of a tetravalent yellow fever-dengue chimeric vaccine: genetic reconstructions, dose adjustment, and antibody responses against wild-type dengue virus isolates. Virology 298 : 146–159. [Google Scholar]
  9. Monath TP, Soike K, Levenbook I, Zhang ZX, Arroyo J, Delagrave S, Myers G, Barrett AD, Shope RE, Ratterree M, Chambers TJ, Guirakhoo F, 1999. Recombinant, chimaeric live, attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVax) incorporating the envelope genes of Japanese encephalitis (SA14-14-2) virus and the capsid and nonstructural genes of yellow fever (17D) virus is safe, immunogenic and protective in non-human primates. Vaccine 17 : 1869–1882. [Google Scholar]
  10. Monath TP, Arroyo J, Miller C, Guirakhoo F, 2001. West Nile virus vaccine. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord 1 : 37–50. [Google Scholar]
  11. Monath TP, Cropp CB, Bowen GS, Kemp GE, Mitchell CJ, Gardner JJ, 1980. Variation in virulence for mice and rhesus monkeys among St. Louis encephalitis virus strains of different origin. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29 : 948–962. [Google Scholar]
  12. Kramer LD, Chandler LJ, 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope gene of St. Louis encephalitis virus. Arch Virol 146 : 2341–2355. [Google Scholar]
  13. Pugachev KV, Ocran SW, Guirakhoo F, Furby D, Monath TP, 2002. Heterogeneous nature of the genome of the ARILVAX yellow fever 17D vaccine revealed by consensus sequencing. Vaccine 20 : 996–999. [Google Scholar]
  14. Chambers TJ, Nestorowicz A, Mason PW, Rice CM, 1999. Yellow fever/Japanese encephalitis chimeric viruses: construction and biological properties. J Virol 73 : 3095–3101. [Google Scholar]
  15. Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RE, 1995. Arboviruses. Lennette EH, Lennette DA, Lennette ED, eds. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections. Seventh edition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 204–205.
  16. Martin DA, Muth DA, Brown T, Johnson AJ, Karabatsos N, Roehrig JT, 2000. Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 1823–1826. [Google Scholar]
  17. Trent DW, Kinney RM, Johnson BJ, Vorndam AV, Grant JA, Deubel V, Rice CM, Hahn C, 1987. Partial nucleotide sequence of St. Louis encephalitis virus RNA: structural proteins, NS1, ns2a, and ns2b. Virology 156 : 293–304. [Google Scholar]
  18. Fitzgeorge R, Bradish CJ, 1980. The in vivo differentiation of strains of yellow fever virus in mice. J Gen Virol 46 : 1–13. [Google Scholar]
  19. Chambers TJ, Nickells M, 2001. Neuroadapted yellow fever virus 17D: genetic and biological characterization of a highly mouse-neurovirulent virus and its infectious molecular clone. J Virol 75 : 10912–10922. [Google Scholar]
  20. Venugopal K, Jiang WR, Gould EA, 1995. Immunity to St. Louis encephalitis virus by sequential immunization with recombinant vaccinia and baculovirus derived PrM/E proteins. Vaccine 13 : 1000–1005. [Google Scholar]
  21. Phillpotts RJ, Venugopal K, Brooks T, 1996. Immunisation with DNA polynucleotides protects mice against lethal challenge with St. Louis encephalitis virus. Arch Virol 141 : 743–749. [Google Scholar]
  22. Arroyo J, Guirakhoo F, Fenner S, Zhang ZX, Monath TP, Chambers TJ, 2001. Molecular basis for attenuation of neurovirulence of a yellow fever virus/Japanese encephalitis virus chimera vaccine (ChimeriVax-JE). J Virol 75 : 934–942. [Google Scholar]
  23. Pletnev AG, Bray M, Huggins J, Lai CJ, 1992. Construction and characterization of chimeric tick-borne encephalitis/dengue type 4 viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89 : 10532–10536. [Google Scholar]
  24. Martin DA, Biggerstaff BJ, Allen B, Johnson AJ, Lanciotti RS, Roehrig JT, 2002. Use of immunoglobulin M cross-reactions in differential diagnosis of human flaviviral encephalitis infections in the United States. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9 : 544–549. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 02 Feb 2004
  • Accepted : 30 May 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error