1921
Volume 71, Issue 2_suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Undernutrition is highly prevalent in many areas in which morbidity and mortality from malaria is unacceptably high. That undernutrition exacerbates diarrhea and respiratory infections is widely demonstrated; however, research suggests that it may exacerbate, palliate, or have little effect on malaria outcomes. This review examines the global burden of malaria associated with various nutrient deficiencies as well as underweight status in children 0–4 years of age. Although the association is complex and requires additional research, improved nutritional status lessens the severity of malaria episodes and results in fewer deaths due to malaria. Deficiencies in vitamin A, zinc, iron, folate, as well as other micronutrients are responsible for a substantial proportion of malaria morbidity and mortality. It is recommended that nutrition programs be integrated into existing malaria intervention programs.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.55
2004-08-01
2019-04-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/71/2_suppl/0700055.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.55&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Shankar AH, 2000. Nutritional modulation of malaria morbidity and mortality. J Infect Dis 182 (Suppl 1): S37–S53. [Google Scholar]
  2. Jones G, Steketee RW, Black RE, Bhutta ZA, Morris SS, 2003. How many child deaths can we prevent this year? Lancet 362 : 65–71. [Google Scholar]
  3. Semba RD, Bloem MW, 2001. Nutrition and Health in Developing Countries. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
  4. Martorell R, Haschke F, 2001. Nutrition and Growth: Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series, Pediatric Program. Philadelphia: Lipincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  5. Hendrickse RG, Hasan AH, Olumide LO, Akinkunmi A, 1971. Malaria in early childhood. An investigation of five hundred seriously ill children in whom a “clinical” diagnosis of malaria was made on admission to the children’s emergency room at University College Hospital, Ibadan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 65 : 1–20. [Google Scholar]
  6. Murray MJ, Murray NJ, Murray AB, Murray MB, 1975. Refeeding-malaria and hyperferraemia. Lancet 1 : 653–654. [Google Scholar]
  7. Murray MJ, Murray AB, Murray MB, Murray CJ, 1978. The adverse effect of iron repletion on the course of certain infections. BMJ 2 : 1113–1115. [Google Scholar]
  8. Murray MJ, Murray AB, Murray NJ, Murray MB, 1978. Diet and cerebral malaria: the effect of famine and refeeding. Am J Clin Nutr 31 : 57–61. [Google Scholar]
  9. Edington G, 1954. Cerebral malaria in the Gold Coast African: four autopsy reports. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 48 : 300–306. [Google Scholar]
  10. Murray MJ, Murray AB, Murray MB, Murray CJ, 1976. Somali food shelters in the Ogaden famine and their impact on health. Lancet 1 : 1283–1285. [Google Scholar]
  11. Man WD, Weber M, Palmer A, Schneider G, Wadda R, Jaffar S, Mulholland EK, Greenwood BM, 1998. Nutritional status of children admitted to hospital with different diseases and its relationship to outcome in The Gambia, West Africa. Trop Med Int Health 3 : 678–686. [Google Scholar]
  12. Tshikuka JG, Gray-Donald K, Scott M, Olela KN, 1997. Relationship of childhood protein-energy malnutrition and parasite infections in an urban African setting. Trop Med Int Health 2 : 374–382. [Google Scholar]
  13. Pelletier DL, Frongillo EA Jr, Schroeder DG, Habicht JP, 1995. The effects of malnutrition on child mortality in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 73 : 443–448. [Google Scholar]
  14. Tomkins A, Watson F, 2003. Malnutrition and infection: a review. United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination/Subcommittee on Nutrition 5. ACC/SCN State-of-the-Art Series, Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper No. 5.
  15. Victora CG, Barros FC, Kirkwood BR, Vaughan JP, 1990. Pneumonia, diarrhea, and growth in the first 4 years of life: a longitudinal study of 5,914 urban Brazilian children. Am J Clin Nutr 52 : 391. [Google Scholar]
  16. Pelletier DL, 1994. The relationship between child anthropometry and mortality in developing countries: implications for policy, programs and future research. J Nutr 124 (Suppl 10): 2047S–2081S. [Google Scholar]
  17. Pelletier DL, Frongillo EA Jr, Habicht JP, 1993. Epidemiologic evidence for a potentiating effect of malnutrition on child mortality. Am J Public Health 83 : 1130–1133. [Google Scholar]
  18. Pollitt E, Gorman KS, Engle PL, Martorell R, Rivera J, 1993. Early supplementary feeding and cognition: effects over two decades. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 58 : 1–99. [Google Scholar]
  19. Rice AL, Sacco L, Hyder A, Black RE, 2000. Malnutrition as an underlying cause of childhood deaths associated with infectious diseases in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 78 : 1207–1221. [Google Scholar]
  20. Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorell R, 1988. Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.
  21. de Onis M, Frongillo EA, Blossner M, 2000. Is malnutrition declining? An analysis of changes in levels of child malnutrition since 1980. Bull World Health Organ 78 : 1222–1233. [Google Scholar]
  22. de Onis M, Monteiro C, Akre J, Glugston G, 1993. The worldwide magnitude of protein-energy malnutrition: an overview from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth. Bull World Health Organ 71 : 703–712. [Google Scholar]
  23. Fishman S, Caulfield L, de Onis M, Blossner M, Hyder A, Mullany L, Black RE, 2004. Malnutrition and the global burden of disease: underweight. Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: The Global and Regional Burden of Disease due to 25 Selected Major Risk Factors. Cambridge: World Health Organization/Harvard University Press.
  24. Scrimshaw NS, SanGiovanni JP, 1997. Synergism of nutrition, infection, and immunity: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr 66 : 464S–477S. [Google Scholar]
  25. Tshikuka JG, Gray-Donald K, Scott M, Olela KN, 1997. Relationship of childhood protein-energy malnutrition and parasite infections in an urban African setting. Trop Med Int Health 2 : 374–382. [Google Scholar]
  26. Snow RW, Byass P, Shenton FC, Greenwood BM, 1991. The relationship between anthropometric measurements and measurements of iron status and susceptibility to malaria in Gambian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85 : 584–589. [Google Scholar]
  27. Williams TN, Maitland K, Phelps L, Bennett S, Peto TE, Viji J, Timothy R, Clegg JB, Weatherall DJ, Bowden DK, 1997. Plasmodium vivax: a cause of malnutrition in young children. QJM 90 : 751–757. [Google Scholar]
  28. Anon., 1998. Randomised trial to assess benefits and safety of vitamin A supplementation linked to immunisation in early infancy. WHO/CHD Immunisation-Linked Vitamin A Supplementation Study Group. Lancet 352 : 1257–1263. [Google Scholar]
  29. Andersen M, 1997. Anthropometric Measurements in Health Programmes: Epidemiological and Statistical Aspects. PhD dissertation. University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  30. Garenne M, Garenne M, Maire B, Fontaine O, Dieng K, Briend A, 2000. Risks of Dying Associated with Different Nutritional Status in Pre-School Aged Children. Final Report. Dakar: ORSTOM. September 1987, 246. Reprinted by CEPED, Paris.
  31. Pelletier DL, Frongillo EA Jr, Schroeder DG, Habicht JP, 1994. A methodology for estimating the contribution of malnutrition to child mortality in developing countries. J Nutr 124 (Suppl 10): 2106S–2122S. [Google Scholar]
  32. Beard JL, 2001. Iron biology in immune function, muscle metabolism and neuronal functioning. J Nutr 131 :(2S-2) 568S–579S. [Google Scholar]
  33. Brabin BJ, Premji Z, Verhoeff F, 2001. An analysis of anemia and child mortality. J Nutr 131 (2S-2): 636S–645S. [Google Scholar]
  34. Haas JD, Brownlie T, 2001. Iron deficiency and reduced work capacity: a critical review of the research to determine a causal relationship. J Nutr 131 (2S-2): 676S–688S. [Google Scholar]
  35. Grantham-McGregor S, Ani C, 2001. A review of studies on the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive development in children. J Nutr 131 (2S-2): 649S–666S. [Google Scholar]
  36. Biggs B, Brown G, 2001. Malaria. Gillespie S, Pearson R, eds. Principles and Practice of Clinical Parasitology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 53–98.
  37. Stoltzfus RJ, Mullany L, Black RE, 2004. Iron deficiency anemia. Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: The Global and Regional Burden of Disease Due to 25 Selected Major Risk Factors. Cambridge, MA: World Health Organization/Harvard University Press.
  38. Brabin BJ, Hakimi M, Pelletier D, 2001. An analysis of anemia and pregnancy-related maternal mortality. J Nutr 131 (2S-2): 604S–614S. [Google Scholar]
  39. Stoltzfus RJ, 2001. Defining iron-deficiency anemia in public health terms: a time for reflection. J Nutr 131 (Suppl 2): 565S–567S. [Google Scholar]
  40. Stoltzfus RJ, Dreyfuss M, 1998. Guidelines for the Use of Iron Supplements to Prevent and Treat Iron Deficiency Anemia. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.
  41. Fleming AF, 1982. Iron deficiency in the tropics. Clin Haematol 11 : 365–388. [Google Scholar]
  42. Masawe AE, 1981. Nutritional anaemias. Part 1: Tropical Africa. Clin Haematol 10 : 815–842. [Google Scholar]
  43. Baker SJ, 1981. Nutritional anaemias. Part 2: Tropical Asia. Clin Haematol 10 : 843–871. [Google Scholar]
  44. Beaton G, 2002. Functional outcomes of iron deficiency and iron deficiency in pregnancy and beyond. Proceedings of the INACG Symposium, February 15–26, 2001, Hanoi, Vietnam.
  45. INACG, 2000. Safety of Iron Supplementation Programs in Malaria-Endemic Regions. Washington, DC: ILSI. Press.
  46. Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Hirt R, Vounatsou P, Aponte JJ, Font F, Acosta CJ, Schellenberg DM, Galindo CM, Kimario J, Urassa H, Brabin B, Smith TA, Kitua AY, Tanner M, Alonso PL, 1997. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis for prevention of severe anaemia and malaria in Tanzanian infants. Lancet 350 : 844–850. [Google Scholar]
  47. Kochan I, 1973. The role of iron in bacterial infections, with special consideration of host-tubercle bacillus interaction. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 60 : 1–30. [Google Scholar]
  48. Harvey PW, Bell RG, Nesheim MC, 1985. Iron deficiency protects inbred mice against infection with Plasmodium chabaudi. Infect Immun 50 : 932–934. [Google Scholar]
  49. Cardoso MA, Ferreira MU, Ribeiro GS, Penteado MD, Andrade Junior HF, 1996. Dietary iron supplementation does not aggravate experimental malaria in young rats. J Nutr 126 : 467–475. [Google Scholar]
  50. Oppenheimer SJ, 2001. Iron and its relation to immunity and infectious disease. J Nutr 131 : (2S-2): 616S–633S. [Google Scholar]
  51. International Nutritional Anemias Consultative Group (IN-ACG), 2000. Safety of Iron Supplementation Programs in Malaria-Endemic Regions. Washington, DC: INACG/ILSI Publications, INACG Consensus Statement, 1–6. Available at http://inacg.ilsi.org/publications/index.cfm.
  52. Menendez C, Todd J, Alonso PL, Francis N, Lulat S, Ceesay S, M’Boge B, Greenwood BM, 1994. The effects of iron supplementation during pregnancy, given by traditional birth attendants, on the prevalence of anaemia and malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88 : 590–593. [Google Scholar]
  53. Oppenheimer SJ, Gibson FD, Macfarlane SB, Moody JB, Harrison C, Spencer A, Bunari O, 1986. Iron supplementation increases prevalence and effects of malaria: report on clinical studies in Papua New Guinea. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 80 : 603–612. [Google Scholar]
  54. Chippaux JP, Schneider D, Aplogan A, Dyck JL, Berger J, 1991. Effects of iron supplementation on malaria infection. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 84 : 54–62. [Google Scholar]
  55. Smith AW, Hendrickse RG, Harrison C, Hayes RJ, Greenwood BM, 1989. The effects on malaria of treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia with oral iron in Gambian children. Ann Trop Paediatr 9 : 17–23. [Google Scholar]
  56. Mehbratu T, 2002. Relation of Season, Age, and Iron Supplementation on Malarial Infection in Pemba Island, Zanzibar. Master’s Thesis, Department of International Health, John Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.
  57. Lawless JW, Latham MC, Stephenson LS, Kinoti SN, Pertet AM, 1994. Iron supplementation improves appetite and growth in anemic Kenyan primary school children. J Nutr 124 : 645–654. [Google Scholar]
  58. Adam Z, 1996. Iron Supplementation and Malaria: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Field Trial in Rural Ethiopia. PhD dissertation. University of London, London, United Kingdom.
  59. Gebreselassie H, 1996. Iron Supplementation and Malaria Infection: Results of a Randomized Controlled Field Trial. PhD dissertation. McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
  60. Harvey PW, Heywood PF, Nesheim MC, Galme K, Zegans M, Habicht JP, Stephenson LS, Radimer KL, Brabin B, Forsyth K, 1989. The effect of iron therapy on malarial infection in Papua New Guinean schoolchildren. Am J Trop Med Hyg 40 : 12–18. [Google Scholar]
  61. Fleming AF, Ghatoura GB, Harrison KA, Briggs ND, Dunn DT, 1986. The prevention of anaemia in pregnancy in primigravidae in the guinea savanna of Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 80 : 211–233. [Google Scholar]
  62. Macdonald RS, 2000. The role of zinc in growth and cell proliferation. J Nutr 130 (Suppl 5): 1500S–1508S. [Google Scholar]
  63. Hambidge M, 2000. Human zinc deficiency. J Nutr 130 (Suppl 5): 1344S–1349S. [Google Scholar]
  64. Sandstead HH, 1991. Zinc deficiency. A public health problem? Am J Dis Child 145 : 853–859. [Google Scholar]
  65. Shankar AH, Prasad AS, 1998. Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. Am J Clin Nutr 68 (Suppl 2): 447S–463S. [Google Scholar]
  66. Brown KH, Peerson JM, Rivera J, Allen LH, 2002. Effect of supplemental zinc on the growth and serum zinc concentrations of prepubertal children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 75 : 1062–1071. [Google Scholar]
  67. Zinc Investigators’ Collaborative Group Sazawal S, Black RE, 1999. Prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia by zinc supplementation in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Pediatr 135 : 689–697. [Google Scholar]
  68. Zinc Investigators’ Collaborative Group, 2000. Therapeutic effects of oral zinc in acute and persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 72 : 1516–1522. [Google Scholar]
  69. Caulfield L, Black RE, 2004. Zinc Deficiency. Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: The Global and Regional Burden of Disease due to 25 Selected Major Risk Factors. Cambridge, MA: World Health Organization/Harvard University Press.
  70. Hambidge M, 2003. Biomarkers of trace mineral intake and status. J Nutr 133 (Suppl 3): 948S–955S. [Google Scholar]
  71. Brown KH, 1998. Effect of infections on plasma zinc concentration and implications for zinc status assessment in low-income countries. Am J Clin Nutr 68 (Suppl 2): 425S–429S. [Google Scholar]
  72. Brown KH, Wuehler SE, Peerson JM, 2001. The importance of zinc in human nutrition and estimation of the global prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food Nutr Bull 22 : 113–125. [Google Scholar]
  73. Ibs KH, Rink L, 2003. Zinc-altered immune function. J Nutr 133 (Suppl 1): 1452S–1456S. [Google Scholar]
  74. Arif AJ, Mathur PD, Chandra S, Singh C, Sen AB, 1987. Effect of zinc diet on xanthine oxidase activity of liver of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Indian J Malariol 24 : 59–63. [Google Scholar]
  75. Muller O, Becher H, van Zweeden AB, Ye Y, Diallo DA, Konate AT, Gbangou A, Kouyate B, Garenne M, 2001. Effect of zinc supplementation on malaria and other causes of morbidity in west African children: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ 322 : 1567. [Google Scholar]
  76. Bates CJ, Evans PH, Dardenne M, Prentice A, Lunn PG, Northrop-Clewes CA, Hoare S, Cole TJ, Horan SJ, Longman SC, 1993. A trial of zinc supplementation in young rural Gambian children. Br J Nutr 69 : 243–255. [Google Scholar]
  77. Shankar AH, Genton B, Baisor M, Paino J, Tamja S, Adiguma T, Wu L, Rare L, Bannon D, Tielsch JM, West KP Jr, Alpers MP, 2000. The influence of zinc supplementation on morbidity due to Plasmodium falciparum: a randomized trial in preschool children in Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 : 663–669. [Google Scholar]
  78. Sommer A, West KJ, 1996. Vitamin A Deficiency: Health, Survival and Vision. New York: Oxford University Press.
  79. Sommer A, 1982. Nutritional Blindness: Xerophthalmia and Keratomalacia. New York: Oxford University Press.
  80. Beaton G, Martorell R, Aronson K, 1993. Effectiveness of vitamin A supplementation in the control of young child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. 13. ACC/SCN Statement-of-the-Art, Nutrition policy discussion paper.
  81. Markowitz LE, Nzilambi N, Driskell WJ, Sension MG, Rovira EZ, Nieburg P, Ryder RW, 1989. Vitamin A levels and mortality among hospitalized measles patients, Kinshasa, Zaire. J Trop Pediatr 35 : 109–112. [Google Scholar]
  82. West KP Jr, Pokhrel RP, Katz J, LeClerq SC, Khatry SK, Shrestha SR, Pradhan EK, Tielsch JM, Pandey MR, Sommer A, 1991. Efficacy of vitamin A in reducing preschool child mortality in Nepal. Lancet 338 : 67–71. [Google Scholar]
  83. Sommer A, Tarwotjo I, Djunaedi E, West KP Jr, Loeden AA, Tilden R, Mele L, 1986. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality. A randomised controlled community trial. Lancet 1 : 1169–1173. [Google Scholar]
  84. Hussey GD, Klein M, 1990. A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles. N Engl J Med 323 : 160–164. [Google Scholar]
  85. Fawzi WW, Mbise R, Spiegelman D, Fataki M, Hertzmark E, Ndossi G, 2000. Vitamin A supplements and diarrheal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Pediatr 137 : 660–667. [Google Scholar]
  86. Haskell MJ, Mazumder RN, Peerson JM, Jones AD, Wahed MA, Mahalanabis D, Brown KH, 1999. Use of the deuterated-retinol-dilution technique to assess total-body vitamin A stores of adult volunteers consuming different amounts of vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 70 : 874–880. [Google Scholar]
  87. Ribaya-Mercado JD, Solon FS, Dallal GE, Solomons NW, Fermin LS, Mazariegos M, Dolnikowski GG, Russell RM, 2003. Quantitative assessment of total body stores of vitamin A in adults with the use of a 3-d deuterated-retinol-dilution procedure. Am J Clin Nutr 77 : 694–699. [Google Scholar]
  88. Rice AL, West KP Jr, Black RE, 2004. Vitamin A Deficiency. Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: The Global and Regional Burden of Disease due to 25 Selected Major Risk Factors. Cambridge, MA: World Health Organization/Harvard University Press.
  89. Roos A, Hegsted D, Stare F, 1946. Nutritional studies with the duck. IV. The effect of vitamin deficiencies on the course of P. lophurae infection in the duck and the chick. J Nutr 32 : 473–484. [Google Scholar]
  90. Krishnan S, Krishnan AD, Mustafa AS, Talwar GP, Ramalingaswami V, 1976. Effect of vitamin A and undernutrition on the susceptibility of rodents to a malarial parasite Plasmodium berghei. J Nutr 106 : 784–791. [Google Scholar]
  91. Stoltzfus RJ, Jalal F, Harvey PW, Nesheim MC, 1989. Interactions between vitamin A deficiency and Plasmodium berghei infection in the rat. J Nutr 119 : 2030–2037. [Google Scholar]
  92. Serghides L, Kain KC, 2002. Mechanism of protection induced by vitamin A in falciparum malaria. Lancet 359 : 1404–1406. [Google Scholar]
  93. Filteau SM, Morris SS, Abbott RA, Tomkins AM, Kirkwood BR, Arthur P, Ross DA, Gyapong JO, Raynes JG, 1993. Influence of morbidity on serum retinol of children in a community-based study in northern Ghana. Am J Clin Nutr 58 : 192–197. [Google Scholar]
  94. Galan P, Samba C, Luzeau R, Amedee-Manesme O, 1990. Vitamin A deficiency in pre-school age Congolese children during malarial attacks. Part 2: Impact of parasitic disease on vitamin A status. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 60 : 224–228. [Google Scholar]
  95. Friis H, Mwaniki D, Omondi B, Muniu E, Magnussen P, Geissler W, Thiong’o F, Michaelsen KF, 1997. Serum retinol concentrations and Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal helminths, and malarial parasitemia: a cross-sectional study in Kenyan preschool and primary school children. Am J Clin Nutr 66 : 665–671. [Google Scholar]
  96. Samba DC, Basco LK, Bleiberg-Daniel F, Lemmonier D, Le Bras J, 1992. Absence of effect of retinol on the in vitro development of Plasmodium falciparum. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 62 : 99–100. [Google Scholar]
  97. Tabone MD, Muanza K, Lyagoubi M, Jardel C, Pied S, Amedee-Manesme O, Grau GE, Mazier D, 1992. The role of interleukin-6 in vitamin A deficiency during Plasmodium falciparum malaria and possible consequences for vitamin A supplementation. Immunology 75 : 553–554. [Google Scholar]
  98. Thurnham DI, Singkamani R, 1991. The acute phase response and vitamin A status in malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85 : 194–199. [Google Scholar]
  99. Shankar AH, Genton B, Semba RD, Baisor M, Paino J, Tamja S, Adiguma T, Wu L, Rare L, Tielsch JM, Alpers MP, West KP Jr, 1999. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity due to Plasmodium falciparum in young children in Papua New Guinea: a randomised trial. Lancet 354 : 203–209. [Google Scholar]
  100. Binka FN, Ross DA, Morris SS, Kirkwood BR, Arthur P, Dollimore N, Gyapong JO, Smith PG, 1995. Vitamin A supplementation and childhood malaria in northern Ghana. Am J Clin Nutr 61 : 853–859. [Google Scholar]
  101. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE, 1993. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ 306 : 366–370. [Google Scholar]
  102. Shankar AH, 1995. Vitamin A and malaria. Am J Clin Nutr 62 : 842–843. [Google Scholar]
  103. Macreadie I, Ginsburg H, Sirawaraporn W, Tilley L, 2000. Antimalarial drug development and new targets. Parasitol Today 16 : 438–444. [Google Scholar]
  104. Tong M, Strickland G, Votteri B, Gunning J, 1970. Supplemental folates in the therapy of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. JAMA 214 : 2330–2333. [Google Scholar]
  105. van Hensbroek MB, Morris-Jones S, Meisner S, Jaffar S, Bayo L, Dackour R, Phillips C, Greenwood BM, 1995. Iron, but not folic acid, combined with effective antimalarial therapy promotes haematological recovery in African children after acute falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89 : 672–676. [Google Scholar]
  106. Krugliak M, Deharo E, Shalmiev G, Sauvain M, Moretti C, Ginsburg H, 1995. Antimalarial effects of C18 fatty acids on Plasmodium falciparum in culture and on Plasmodium vinckei petteri and Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in vivo. Exp Parasitol 81 : 97–105. [Google Scholar]
  107. Arun KC, Das UN, 1999. Lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and essential fatty acids in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 61 : 255–258. [Google Scholar]
  108. Levander OA, Ager AL Jr, 1993. Malarial parasites and anti-oxidant nutrients. Parasitology 107 (Suppl): S95–S106. [Google Scholar]
  109. Oppenheimer SJ, Bull R, Thurnham DI, 1983. Riboflavin deficiency in Madang infants. P N G Med J 26 : 17–20. [Google Scholar]
  110. Thurnham DI, Oppenheimer SJ, Bull R, 1983. Riboflavin status and malaria in infants in Papua New Guinea. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 77 : 423–424. [Google Scholar]
  111. Dutta P, Pinto J, Rivlin R, 1985. Antimalarial effects of riboflavin deficiency. Lancet 2 : 1040–1043. [Google Scholar]
  112. Metzger A, Mukasa G, Shankar AH, Ndeezi G, Melikian G, Semba RD, 2001. Antioxidant status and acute malaria in children in Kampala, Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65 : 115–119. [Google Scholar]
  113. Traunmuller F, Ramharter M, Lagler H, Thalhammer F, Kremsner PG, Graninger W, Winkler S, 2003. Normal riboflavin status in malaria patients in Gabon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 182–185. [Google Scholar]
  114. Krishna S, Taylor AM, Supanaranond W, Pukrittayakamee S, ter Kuile F, Tawfiq KM, Holloway PA, White NJ, 1999. Thiamine deficiency and malaria in adults from southeast Asia. Lancet 353 : 546–549. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.55
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.55
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 03 Sep 2003
  • Accepted : 06 Dec 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error