Volume 71, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


The taxonomic history, distribution, bionomics, systematics, and vector control strategies for the complex are reviewed in relation to malaria epidemiology. The lack of data on the bionomics, insecticide resistance, and vector capacity, as well as the general lack of surveillance and monitoring of potential vector populations, make the development of targeted control measures problematic. It will be necessary to elucidate, characterize and identify all members of the complex to determine their distributions, disease relationships, ecologic relationships, and resistance to insecticides. This knowledge is essential for epidemiologic studies, the design and implementation of appropriate vector control measures, and the development of strategies for monitoring and assessing the potential risk of malaria outbreaks due to members of the complex.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Declan B, 1997. Time to put malaria on the global agenda. Nature 386 : 535–541.
  2. Green CA, Gass RF, Munstermann LE, Baimai V, 1990. Population-genetic evidence for two species in Anopheles minimus in Thailand. Med Vet Entomol 4 : 25–34.
  3. Della Torre A, Costantini C, Besansky NJ, Caccone A, Petrarca V, Powell JR, Coluzzi M, 2002. Speciation within Anopheles gambiae - the glass is half full. Science 298 : 115–117.
  4. van Bortel W, Trung HD, Manh ND, Roelants P, Verle P, Coosemans M, 1999. Identification of two species within the Anopheles minimus complex in northern Vietnam and their behavioural divergences. Trop Med Int Health 4 : 257–265.
  5. Bang YH, 1985. Implication in the Control of malaria vectors with insecticides in tropical countries of South-East Asia Region. Part II - Consequences of insecticide use. J Commun Dis 17 : 300–310.
  6. Barcus MJ, Laihad F, Sururi M, Sismadi P, Marwoto H, Bangs MJ, Baird JK, 2002. Epidemic malaria in the Menoreh Hills of Central Java. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 287–292.
  7. Brandling-Bennett AD, Doberstyn EB, Pinichpongse S, 1981. Current epidemiology of malaria in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 12 : 289–297.
  8. Chooi CK, 1985. Status of malaria vectors in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 16 : 133–138.
  9. Das SC, Nath DR, Bhuyan M, Das NG, Baruah I, Talukdar PK, 1989. Studies on malaria and filariasis vectors in Kamorta and Great Nicobar Islands. Indian J Malariol 26 : 153–157.
  10. Hair JD, 1973. Day-time indoor resting anophelines of the delta region of Vietnam. Mosq News 33 : 195–198.
  11. Kalra NL, 1978. National Malaria Eradication Programme, India - its problems, management and research needs. J Commun Dis 10 : 1–20.
  12. Kalra NL, 1980. Emergence of malaria zoonosis of simian origin as natural phenomenon in Greater Nicobars, Andaman and Nicobar Islands - a preliminary note. J Commun Dis 12 : 49–54.
  13. Meek SR, 1995. Vector control in some countries of Southeast Asia: comparing the vectors and the strategies. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 89 : 135–147.
  14. Nguyen Tang Am, Le Quy R, Vu Thi H, Nguyen Bieh L, 1993. Entomoepidemiological studies of malaria in the coastal zone of Ho Chi Minh City 1990–1992. Santé 3 : 464–473.
  15. Soeparmo HT, Lair RL, 1954. Anopheles sundaicus and its Control by DDT Residual House Spraying in Indonesia. Geneva: World Health Organization. Malaria Conference for the Western Pacific and South East Asia Regions. WHO/Mal 118.
  16. Chow CY, 1970. Bionomics of malaria vectors in the western Pacific region. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1 : 40–57.
  17. Chowanadisai L, Krairiksh S, Thanasripukdikul S, 1989. Microbial control of Anopheles sundaicus, a malaria vector in Thailand, by Bacillus sphaericus 2362. Mosq Borne Dis Bull 6 : 39–44.
  18. Harinasuta C, Guptavanij P, Vasuvat C, 1974. Studies on the medical ecological epidemiology in mangrove areas in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 5 : 105–127.
  19. Klein JM, 1977. The mosquito fauna of Cambodia. I. Anophelinae (Diptera, Culicidae). Cah ORSTOM Ser Entomol Med Parasitol 15 : 107–122.
  20. Tin O, Pe Thet H, Khin Thet W, Parks W, Bryan J, 2001. Gender, mosquitoes and malaria: implications for community development programs in Laputta, Myanmar. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 32 : 588–594.
  21. Ikemoto T, 1996. Ecological diversities of Anopheles sundaicus as a vector mosquito of malaria. Med Entomol Zool 47 : 1–13.
  22. Chang MS, Linton YM, Harbach RE, 2001. The Anopheles sundaicus species complex - a preliminary study of larval ecology from two sites in Sarawak, Malaysia. Mekong Malaria Forum 8 : 91–95.
  23. Rao TR, 1984. The Anophelines of India. Delhi: Malaria Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research.
  24. Sukowati S, Baimai V, Andris H, 1996. Sex chromosome variation in natural populations of the Anopheles sundaicus complex from Thailand and Indonesia. Mosq Borne Dis Bull 13 : 8–13.
  25. Sukowati S, Baimai V, Harun S, Dasuki Y, Andris H, Efriwati M, 1999. Isozyme evidence for three sibling species in the Anopheles sundaicus complex from Indonesia. Med Vet Entomol 13 : 408–414.
  26. Linton YM, Harbach RE, Chang MS, Anthony TG, Matusop A, 2001. Morphological and molecular identity of Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus (Diptera: Culicidae), the nominotypical member of a malaria vector species complex in Southeast Asia. Syst Entomol 26 : 357–366.
  27. Reid JA, 1968. Anopheline mosquitoes of Malaya and Borneo. Studies from the Institute of Medical Research Malaysia 31. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Government of Malaysia.
  28. Collins RT, Jung RK, Anoez H, Sutrisno RH, Putut D, 1979. A Study of the Coastal Malaria Vectors, Anopheles sundaicus (Rodenwaldt) and Anopheles subpictus Grassi, in South Sulawesi, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/Mal 79.
  29. Coosemans M, Cong D, Socheat D, Inthakone S, Baimai V, Manguin S, Harbach RE, 1998. Identification and Characterization of Malaria Vectors in Southeast Asia: A Prerequisite for Appropriate Vector Control. Antwerp, Belgium: Institute of Tropical Medicine. INCO-DEC report, ERBIC18.CT.970211.
  30. Phan VT, 1998. Epidémiologie du Paludisme et Lutte Anti-paludique au Vietnam. Hanoi: Edition Médicales Vietnam.
  31. Nagpal BN, Kalra NL, 1997. Malaria vectors of India. J Parasitic Dis 21 : 105–112.
  32. Christophers SR, 1933. Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Volume IV. Diptera. Family Culicidae. Tribe Anophelini. London: Taylor & Francis.
  33. Nasiruddin M, 1952. A note on the natural infectivity of mosquitoes in East Pakistan. Pakistan J Health 2 : 113–115.
  34. Puri IM, 1936. The distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in India: Additional records, 1931–1935. Rec Malaria Surv India 6 : 177–211.
  35. Puri IM, 1948. The distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in India, Pakistan, Ceylon and Burma: Part V: additional records, 1936–1947. Indian J Malariol 6 : 177–211.
  36. Singh N, Nagpal BN, Sharma VP, 1985. Mosquitoes of Kutch, Gujarat. Indian J Malariol 22 : 17–20.
  37. Dash AP, Behura BK, Roy JR, 1984. On the distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in Orissa, India. J Zool Soc India 36 : 1–14.
  38. Rajogopal R, 1976. Studies on persistent transmission of malaria in Burnihat, Meghalaya. J Commun Dis 8 : 235–245.
  39. Dash AP, Hazra RK, Mahapatra N, Tripathy HK, 2000. Disappearance of malaria vector Anopheles sundaicus from Chilika Lake area of Orissa State in India. Med Vet Entomol 14 : 445–449.
  40. Sandosham AA, Thomas V, 1983. Malariology: With Special Reference to Malaya. Singapore. Singapore University Press.
  41. Abu Hassan A, Rahman WA, Che Salmah MR, Rashid MZA, Jaal Z, Adanan CR, Shahrem MR, 1997. The distribution of common Anopheles mosquitoes in northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. J Vect Ecol 22 : 109–114.
  42. Ikemoto T, Sumitro , Panjaitan W, Shibuya T, 1986. Laboratory and small-scale field tests of larvicides and larvivorous fishes against Anopheles sundaicus larvae at Perupuk Village, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Jpn J Sanit Zool 37 : 105–112.
  43. Scanlon JE, Reid JA, Cheong WH, 1968. Ecology of Anopheles vectors of malaria in the oriental region. Cah ORSTOM Ser Entomol Med Parasitol VI : 237–246.
  44. Soerono M, Davidson G, Muir DA, 1965. The Development and trend of insecticide-resistance in Anopheles aconitus Dönitz and Anopheles sundaicus Rodenwalt. Bull World Health Organ 32 : 161–168.
  45. van der Brug PH, 1997. Malaria in Batavia in the 18th century. Trop Med Int Health 2 : 892–902.
  46. Das MK, Nagpal BN, Sharma VP, 1998. Mosquito fauna and breeding habitats of anophelines in Car Nicobar Island, India. Indian J Malariol 35 : 197–205.
  47. Kirnowardoya S, Yoga GP, 1987. Entomological investigations of an outbreak of malaria in Chilacap on south coast of central Java, Indonesia during 1985. J Commun Dis 19 : 121–127.
  48. Miyagi I, Toma T, Mogi M, Martono, Yotopranoto S, Arifin Z, Dachlan Y, 1994. Mosquitoes species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Lombok Island, Indonesia. Mosq Syst 26 : 19–24.
  49. Webster J, 2000. Malaria Consortium - Cambodia: Roll Back Malaria Complex Emergencies Technical Support Network. Liver-pool, United Kingdom: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.
  50. Senior-White R, Adhikari AK, 1939. On malaria transmission around the Chilika lake. J Mal Inst India 2 : 395–423.
  51. Reid JA, 1966. A note on Anopheles subpictus Grassi and A. indefinitus Ludlow (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 3 : 327–331.
  52. Kikuchi T, Takagi M, Tokuhisa E, Suzuki T, Panjaitan W, Yasuno M, 1997. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as an indicator to show the absence of Anopheles sundaicus larvae. Med Entomol Zool 48 : 11–18.
  53. Imai C, Ikemoto T, Takagi M, Yamugi H, Pohan W, Hasibuan H, Sirait H, Panjaitan W, 1988. Ecological study of Anopheles sundaicus larvae in a coastal village of North Sumatra, Indonesia. I. Topography, land use, and larval breeding. Jpn J Sanit Zool 39 : 293–300.
  54. Schaefer CH, Kirnowardoyo S, 1983. An operational evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14 against Anopheles sundaicus in West Java, Indonesia. Mosq News 43 : 325–328.
  55. Iyenger MOT, 1945. Naturalistic methods of control of breeding of Anopheles sundaicus by means of Eichhornia. J Mal Inst 6 : 309–310.
  56. Sundaraman S, Soeroto RM, Siran M, 1957. Vectors of malaria in mid-Java. Indian J Malariol 11 : 321–338.
  57. Nanda N, Das MK, Wattal S, Adak T, Subbarao SK, 2004. Cytogenetic characterization of Anopheles sundaicus (Diptera: Culicidae) population from Car Nicobar Island, India. Ann Entomol Soc Am 97 : 171–176.
  58. Dusfour I, Linton YM, Cohuet A, Harbach RE, Baimai V, Trung HD, Chang MS, Matusop A, Manguin S, 2004. Molecular evidence of speciation between island and continental populations of Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus (Diptera: Culicidae), a principal malaria vector raxon in Southeast Asia. J Med Entomol 41 : 287–295.
  59. Gould DJ, Scanlon JE, Major MSC, Ward RA, 1966. Anopheles Vectors of Malaria in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: Army Science Conference Proceedings, 361–373.
  60. Sen P, 1938. Anopheles sundaicus (Ludlowi) and malaria in Calcutta. J Mal Inst India l 1 : 83–107.
  61. Kumari R, Joshi H, Giri A, Sharma VP, 1993. Feeding preferences of Anopheles sundaicus in Car Nicobar Island. Indian J Malariol 30 : 201–206.
  62. Huehne WH, 1971. Experience with an insecticide-drug combination and observations on suppressive chloroquine-pyrimethamine treatment. J Trop Med Hyg 74 : 110–116.
  63. Coosemans M, Wery M, Mouchet J, Carnevale P, 1992. Transmission factors in malaria epidemiology and control in Africa. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 87 (Suppl 3): 385–391.
  64. Poolsuwan S, 1995. Malaria in prehistoric Southeastern Asia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 26 : 3–22.
  65. Collins WE, Contacos PG, 1980. Infection and transmission studies with Plasmodium gonderi in the Macaca mulatta monkey. J Parasitol 66 : 998–1002.
  66. Kirnowardoyo S, 1988. Anopheles malaria vector and control measures applied in Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 19 : 713–716.
  67. Takagi M, Pohan W, Hasibuan H, Panjaitan W, Suzuki T, 1995. Evaluation of shading of fish farming ponds as a larval control measure against Anopheles sundaicus Rodenwaldt (Diptera: Culicidae). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 26 : 748–753.
  68. Imai C, Yamugi H, Panjaitan W, 1987. Efficacy of several larvicides in laboratory and field tests against Anopheles sundaicus in a village, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Jpn J Sanit Zool 38 : 93–102.
  69. Manguin S, Roberts DR, Peyton EL, Rejmankova E, Pecor J, 1996. Characterization of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis larval habitats. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12 : 619–626.
  70. Covell G, 1927. Report on an Inquiry into Malarial Conditions in the Andamans. Delhi: Government of India Press.
  71. Covell G, Singh P, 1942. Malaria in the coastal belt of Orissa. J Malaria Inst India 4 : 457–488.
  72. Kumari R, Sharma VP, 1994. Resting and biting habits of Anopheles sundaicus in Car Nicobar Island. Indian J Malariol 31 : 103–114.
  73. Nandi J, Kaul SM, Sharma SN, Shiv L, 2000. Anthropophily of anophelines in duars of West Bengal and other regions of India. J Commun Dis 32 : 95–99.
  74. Ikemoto T, 1982. Studies on the bionomics of An. sundaicus (Rodenwaldt, 1925), the principal malaria vector in a coastal area of the North Sumatra, Indonesia. Teikyo Med J 5 : 1–15.
  75. Akiyama J, 1984. Assignment Report (Jan 1980–Dec 1983). Jakarta: Indonesia. Malaria Control Program in Indonesia.
  76. Moorhouse DE, Wharton RH, 1965. Studies on Malayan vectors of malaria; methods of trapping and observations on biting cycles. J Med Entomol 1 : 359–370.
  77. Giang NL, Hoa PT, Dan BV, Thang TT, 1980. Quelques Particularités du Paludisme au Pilote Ayant An. sundaicus et Les Mesures Appliquées. Hanoi, Vietnam: National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology, 59–65.
  78. Bonne-Webster J, Swellengrebel NH, 1953. The Anopheline Mosquito of the Indo-Australian Region. Amsterdam: De Bussy.
  79. Marwoto HA, Arbani PR, 1991. Forest Malaria in Indonesia. Geneva: World Health Organization. Forest Malaria in Southeast Asia: Proceedings of an Informal Consultative Meeting. WHO/MRC.
  80. Hien NT, 1968. The Genus Anopheles in the Republic of Vietnam. Saigon, Vietnam: National Malaria Program.
  81. Crandell HA, 1954. Resistance of An. sundaicus to DDT. a preliminary report. Mosq News 14 : 194–195.
  82. WHO, 1976. Resistance of vectors and reservoirs of disease to pesticides. 22th Report of the WHO Expert Committee on Insecticides. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 585.
  83. Ong Keng Ho, Chewlai M, Lok CL, 1981. Current insecticidal susceptibility status of mosquitoes in Singapore. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 12 : 222–227.
  84. Kirnowardoyo S, 1985. Status of Anopheles malaria vectors in Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 16 : 129–132.
  85. Gornostaeva RM, Vu Tkhin V, Nguen Van C, Nguen Tkhyong K, Nguen Suan Z, Nguen Tuan R, Nguen Tho V, 1994. Sensitivity of malarial mosquitoes to insecticides in Vietnam. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 34–41.
  86. Webster J, 2000. Malaria Consortium - East Timor: Roll Back Malaria Complex Emergency Malaria Technical Support. Liverpool, United Kingdom: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.
  87. Imai C, Panjaitan W, 1990. Ecological study of Anopheles sundaicus larvae in coastal village of North Sumatra, Indonesia. II. Environmental factor affecting larval density of An. sundaicus and other anopheline species. Jpn J Sanit Zool 41 : 205–211.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 Feb 2004
  • Accepted : 04 Apr 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error