1921
Volume 71, Issue 2_suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

In sub-Saharan Africa, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria are among the leading causes of morbidity during pregnancy. We reviewed available information collected since the first report 15 years ago that HIV impaired the ability of pregnant women to control malaria parasitemia. Results from 11 studies showed that HIV-infected women experienced consistently more peripheral and placental malaria (summary relative risk = 1.58 and 1.66, respectively), higher parasite densities, and more febrile illnesses, severe anemia, and adverse birth outcomes than HIV-uninfected women, particularly in multigravidae. Thus, HIV alters the typical gravidity-specific pattern of malaria risk by shifting the burden from primarily primigravidae and secundigravidae to all pregnant women. The proportional increase of malaria during pregnancy attributable to HIV was estimated to be 5.5% and 18.8% for populations with HIV prevalences of 10% and 40%, respectively. Maternal malaria was associated with a two-fold higher HIV-1 viral concentrations. Three studies investigating whether placental malaria increased mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission showed conflicting results, possibly reflecting a complex balance between placental malarial immune responses and stimulation of HIV-1 viral replication. Further investigations of interactions between antiretroviral drugs, prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole, and antimalarial drugs in pregnant women are urgently needed. Although much has been learned in the past 15 years about the interaction between malaria and HIV-1 during pregnancy, many issues still require further information to improve our understanding. There is a clear need to strengthen the deployment of existing malaria and HIV prevention and intervention measures for pregnant women.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.41
2004-08-01
2017-09-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/71/2_suppl/0700041.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.41&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Regional Office for Africa of the World Health Organization, 2004. A Policy Framework for Malaria Prevention and Control During Pregnancy in the African Region, Final Draft December 19, 2003. Harare: World Health Organization.
  2. Steketee RW, Wirima JJ, Slutsker L, Heymann DL, Breman JG, 1996. The problem of malaria and malaria control in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 : 2–7.
  3. Brabin BJ, 1983. An analysis of malaria in pregnancy in Africa. Bull World Health Organ 61 : 1005–1016.
  4. Mockenhaupt FP, Ulmen U, von Gaertner C, Bedu-Addo G, Bienzle U, 2002. Diagnosis of placental malaria. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 306–308.
  5. Leke RF, Djokam RR, Mbu R, Leke RJ, Fogako J, Megnekou R, Metenou S, Sama G, Zhou Y, Cadigan T, Parra M, Taylor DW, 1999. Detection of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen histidine-rich protein 2 in blood of pregnant women: implications for diagnosing placental malaria. J Clin Microbiol 37 : 2992–2996.
  6. Shulman CE, 1999. Malaria in pregnancy: its relevance to safe-motherhood programmes. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 93 (Suppl 1): S59–S66.
  7. Dabis F, Ekpini ER, 2002. HIV-1/AIDS and maternal and child health in Africa. Lancet 359 : 2097–2104.
  8. De Cock KM, Fowler MG, Mercier E, de Vincenzi I, Saba J, Hoff E, Alnwick DJ, Rogers M, Shaffer N, 2000. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-poor countries: translating research into policy and practice. JAMA 283 : 1175–1182.
  9. Butcher GA, 1992. HIV and malaria: a lesson in immunology? Parasitol Today 8 : 307–311.
  10. Leke RG, 2001. The state of immunology in Africa: HIV/AIDS and malaria. Curr Opin Immunol 13 : 523–527.
  11. French N, Nakiyingi J, Lugada E, Watera C, Whitworth JA, Gilks CF, 2001. Increasing rates of malarial fever with deteriorating immune status in HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults. AIDS 15 : 899–906.
  12. Whitworth J, Morgan D, Quigley M, Smith A, Mayanja B, Eotu H, Omoding N, Okongo M, Malamba S, Ojwiya A, 2000. Effect of HIV-1 and increasing immunosuppression on malaria parasitaemia and clinical episodes in adults in rural Uganda: a cohort study. Lancet 356 : 1051–1056.
  13. Francesconi P, Fabiani M, Dente MG, Lukwiya M, Okwey R, Ouma J, Ochakachon R, Cian F, Declich S, 2001. HIV, malaria parasites, and acute febrile episodes in Ugandan adults: a case-control study. AIDS 15 : 2445–2450.
  14. Grimwade K, French N, Mbatha DD, Zunga DD, Dedicoat M, Gilks CF, 2004.HIV-infection as a co-factor for severe falciparum malaria in adults living in a region of unstable malaria transmission in South Africa. AIDS 18 : 547–554.
  15. Grimwade K, French N, Mbatha DD, Zungu DD, Dedicoat M, Gilks CF, 2003. Childhood malaria in a region of unstable transmission and high human immunodeficiency virus prevalence. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22 : 1057–1063.
  16. Chandramohan D, Greenwood BM, 1998. Is there an interaction between human immunodeficiency virus and Plasmodium falciparum? Int J Epidemiol 27 : 296–301.
  17. French N, Gilks CF, 2000. Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Meeting at Manson House, London, March 18, 1999. Fresh from the field: some controversies in tropical medicine and hygiene. HIV and malaria, do they interact? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 : 233–237.
  18. Corbett EL, Steketee RW, ter Kuile FO, Latif AS, Kamali A, Hayes RJ, 2002. HIV-1/AIDS and the control of other infectious diseases in Africa. Lancet 359 : 2177–2187.
  19. Rowland-Jones SL, Lohman B, 2002. Interactions between malaria and HIV infection-an emerging public health problem? Microbes Infect 4 : 1265–1270.
  20. Steketee RW, Wirima JJ, Bloland PB, Chilima B, Mermin JH, Chitsulo L, Breman JG, 1996. Impairment of a pregnant woman’s acquired ability to limit Plasmodium falciparum by infection with human immunodeficiency virus type-1. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 : 42–49.
  21. Shulman CE, Graham WJ, Jilo H, Lowe BS, New L, Obiero J, Snow RW, Marsh K, 1996. Malaria is an important cause of anaemia in primigravidae: evidence from a district hospital in coastal Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 : 535–539.
  22. Verhoeff FH, 2003. HIV and Malaria in Pregnancy. Symposium presentation. PREMA-EU, ed. Malaria and Pregnancy, PREMA. 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Philadelphia, PA.
  23. Steketee RW, Wirima JJ, Slutsker L, Breman JG, Heymann DL, 1996. Comparability of treatment groups and risk factors for parasitemia at the first antenatal clinic visit in a study of malaria treatment and prevention in pregnancy in rural Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 : 17–23.
  24. Kalyesubula I, Musoke-Mudido P, Marum L, Bagenda D, Aceng E, Ndugwa C, Olness K, 1997. Effects of malaria infection in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected Ugandan children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16 : 876–881.
  25. Weng S, Bulterys M, Chao A, Stidley CA, Dushimimana A, Mbarutso E, Saah A, 1998. Perinatal human immunodeficiency virus-1 transmission and intrauterine growth: a cohort study in Butare, Rwanda. Pediatrics 102 : e24.
  26. Ladner J, Leroy V, Simonon A, Karita E, Bogaerts J, de Clercq A, van de Perre P, Dabis F, 2002. HIV infection, malaria, and pregnancy: a prospective cohort study in Kigali, Rwanda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 56–60.
  27. van Eijk AM, Ayisi JG, ter Kuile FO, Misore AO, Otieno JA, Rosen DH, Kager PA, Steketee RW, Nahlen BL, 2003. HIV increases the risk of malaria in women of all gravidities in Kisumu, Kenya. AIDS 17 : 595–603.
  28. Brahmbhatt H, Kigozi G, Wabwire-Mangen F, Serwadda D, Sewankambo N, Lutalo T, Wawer MJ, Abramowsky C, Sullivan D, Gray R, 2003. The effects of placental malaria on mother-to-child HIV transmission in Rakai, Uganda. AIDS 17 : 2539–2541.
  29. Inion I, Mwanyumba F, Gaillard P, Chohan V, Verhofstede C, Claeys P, Mandaliya K, van Marck E, Temmerman M, 2003. Placental malaria and perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis 188 : 1675–1678.
  30. Parise ME, Ayisi JG, Nahlen BL, Schultz LJ, Roberts JM, Misore A, Muga R, Oloo AJ, Steketee RW, 1998. Efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of placental malaria in an area of Kenya with a high prevalence of malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 813–822.
  31. Ticconi C, Mapfumo M, Dorrucci M, Naha N, Tarira E, Pietropolli A, Rezza G, 2003. Effect of maternal HIV and malaria infection on pregnancy and perinatal outcome in Zimbabwe. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 34 : 289–294.
  32. Mount AM, Mwapasa V, Elliott SR, Beeson JG, Tadesse E, Lema VM, Molyneux ME, Meshnick SR, Rogerson SJ, 2004. HIV infection impairs humoral immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy. Lancet: (in press).
  33. Verhoeff FH, Brabin BJ, Hart CA, Chimsuku L, Kazembe P, Broadhead RL, 1999. Increased prevalence of malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women and its implications for malaria control. Trop Med Int Health 4 : 5–12.
  34. Mocroft A, Kirk O, Barton SE, Dietrich M, Proenca R, Colebunders R, Pradier C, dAarminio MA, Ledergerber B, Lundgren JD, 1999. Anaemia is an independent predictive marker for clinical prognosis in HIV-infected patients from across Europe. EuroSIDA study group. AIDS 13 : 943–950.
  35. Moses A, Nelson J, Bagby GC Jr, 1998. The influence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 on hematopoiesis. Blood 91 : 1479–1495.
  36. Guyatt HL, Snow RW, 2001. The epidemiology and burden of Plasmodium falciparum-related anemia among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 : 36–44.
  37. Ayisi JG, van Eijk AM, ter Kuile FO, Kolczak MS, Otieno JA, Misore AO, Kager PA, Steketee RW, Nahlen BL, 2003. The effect of dual infection with HIV and malaria on pregnancy outcome in western Kenya. AIDS 17 : 585–594.
  38. van Eijk AM, Ayisi JG, ter Kuile FO, Misore A, Otieno JA, Kolczak MS, Kager PA, Steketee RW, Nahlen BL, 2001. Human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity and malaria as risk factors for third-trimester anemia in asymptomatic pregnant women in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65 : 623–630.
  39. Leroy V, Ladner J, Nyiraziraje M, De Clercq A, Bazubagira A, van de Perre P, Karita E, Dabis F, 1998. Effect of HIV-1 infection on pregnancy outcome in women in Kigali, Rwanda, 1992–1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group. AIDS 12 : 643–650.
  40. Steketee RW, Wirima JJ, Hightower AW, Slutsker L, Heymann DL, Breman JG, 1996. The effect of malaria and malaria prevention in pregnancy on offspring birthweight, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation in rural Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 : 33–41.
  41. Walker N, Schwartlander B, Bryce J, 2002. Meeting international goals in child survival and HIV/AIDS. Lancet 360 : 284–289.
  42. Steketee RW, Nahlen BL, Parise ME, Menendez C, 2001. The burden of malaria in pregnancy in malaria-endemic areas. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 : 28–35.
  43. Moore JM, Nahlen BL, Misore A, Lal AA, Udhayakumar V, 1999. Immunity to placental malaria. I. Elevated production of interferon-gamma by placental blood mononuclear cells is associated with protection in an area with high transmission of malaria. J Infect Dis 179 : 1218–1225.
  44. Moore JM, Ayisi J, Nahlen BL, Misore A, Lal AA, Udhayakumar V, 2000. Immunity to placental malaria. II. Placental antigen-specific cytokine responses are impaired in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. J Infect Dis 182 : 960–964.
  45. Chaisavaneeyakorn S, Moore JM, Otieno J, Chaiyaroj SC, Perkins DJ, Shi YP, Nahlen BL, Lal AA, Udhayakumar V, 2002. Immunity to placental malaria. III. Impairment of interleukin (IL)-12, not IL-18, and interferon-inducible protein-10 responses in the placental intervillous blood of human immunodeficiency virus/malaria-coinfected women. J Infect Dis 185 : 127–131.
  46. Chaisavaneeyakorn S, Moore JM, Othoro C, Otieno J, Chaiyaroj SC, Shi YP, Nahlen BL, Lal AA, Udhayakumar V, 2002. Immunity to placental malaria. IV. Placental malaria is associated with up-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in intervillous blood. J Infect Dis 186 : 1371–1375.
  47. Ayisi JG, Branch OH, Rafi-Janajreh A, van Eijk AM, ter Kuile FO, Rosen DH, Kager PA, Lanar DE, Barbosa A, Kaslow D, Nahlen BL, Lal AA, 2003. Does infection with human immunodeficiency virus affect the antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigenic determinants in asymptomatic pregnant women? J Infect 46 : 164–172.
  48. Fried M, Duffy PE, 1996. Adherence of Plasmodium falciparum to chondroitin sulfate A in the human placenta. Science 272 : 1502–1504.
  49. Quinn TC, Piot P, McCormick JB, Feinsod FM, Taelman H, Kapita B, Stevens W, Fauci AS, 1987. Serologic and immunologic studies in patients with AIDS in North America and Africa. The potential role of infectious agents as cofactors in human immunodeficiency virus infection. JAMA 257 : 2617–2621.
  50. Hoffman IF, Jere CS, Taylor TE, Munthali P, Dyer JR, Wirima JJ, Rogerson SJ, Kumwenda N, Eron JJ, Fiscus SA, Chakraborty H, Taha TE, Cohen MS, Molyneux ME, 1999. The effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on HIV-1 RNA blood plasma concentration. AIDS 13 : 487–494.
  51. Kublin JG, Jere CS, Miller WC, Hoffman IF, Chimbiya N, Taylor TE, Molyneux ME, 2002. Malaria Infection Elevates HIV-1 Viral Load. AIDS 2002 The XIV International AIDS Conference. Barcelona, Spain.
  52. Kapiga SH, Bang H, Spiegelman D, Msamanga GI, Coley J, Hunter DJ, Fawzi WW, 2002. Correlates of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load among HIV-1-seropositive women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 30 : 316–323.
  53. Mwapasa V, Rogerson SJ, Molyneux ME, Abrams ET, Kamwendo DD, Lema VM, Tadesse E, Chaluluka E, Wilson PE, Meshnick SR, 2004. The effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on peripheral and placental HIV-1 RNA concentrations in pregnant Malawian women. AIDS 18 : 1051–1059.
  54. Ayisi JG, van Eijk AM, Newman RD, ter Kuile FO, Shi YP, Yang C, Kolczak MS, Otieno JA, Misore AO, Kager PA, Lal RB, Steketee RW, Nahlen BL, 2004. Maternal malaria infection and perinatal HIV transmission in a malarious area of western Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis 10 : 643–652.
  55. Xiao L, Owen SM, Rudolph DL, Lal RB, Lal AA, 1998. Plasmodium falciparum antigen-induced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication is mediated through induction of tumor necrosis factor- alpha. J Infect Dis 177 : 437–445.
  56. Pisell TL, Hoffman IF, Jere CS, Ballard SB, Molyneux ME, Butera ST, Lawn SD, 2002. Immune activation and induction of HIV-1 replication within CD14 macrophages during acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria coinfection. AIDS 16 : 1503–1509.
  57. Freitag C, Chougnet C, Schito M, Near KA, Shearer GM, Li C, Langhorne J, Sher A, 2001. Malaria infection induces virus expression in human immunodeficiency virus transgenic mice by CD4 T cell-dependent immune activation. J Infect Dis 183 : 1260–1268.
  58. Ordi J, Ismail MR, Ventura PJ, Kahigwa E, Hirt R, Cardesa A, Alonso PL, Menendez C, 1998. Massive chronic intervillositis of the placenta associated with malaria infection. Am J Surg Pathol 22 : 1006–1011.
  59. Bulmer JN, Rasheed FN, Francis N, Morrison L, Greenwood BM, 1993. Placental malaria. I. Pathological classification. Histopathology 22 : 211–218.
  60. Ordi J, Menendez C, Ismail MR, Ventura PJ, Palacin A, Kahigwa E, Ferrer B, Cardesa A, Alonso PL, 2001. Placental malaria is associated with cell-mediated inflammatory responses with selective absence of natural killer cells. J Infect Dis 183 : 1100–1107.
  61. Ismail MR, Ordi J, Menendez C, Ventura PJ, Aponte JJ, Kahigwa E, Hirt R, Cardesa A, Alonso PL, 2000. Placental pathology in malaria: a histological, immunohistochemical, and quantitative study. Hum Pathol 31 : 85–93.
  62. Rogerson SJ, Pollina E, Getachew A, Tadesse E, Lema VM, Molyneux ME, 2003. Placental monocyte infiltrates in response to Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 115–119.
  63. Chaisavaneeyakorn S, Moore JM, Mirel L, Othoro C, Otieno J, Chaiyaroj SC, Shi YP, Nahlen BL, Lal AA, Udhayakumar V, 2003. Levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and MIP-1 beta in intervillous blood plasma samples from women with placental malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10 : 631–636.
  64. Tkachuk AN, Moormann AM, Poore JA, Rochford RA, Chensue SW, Mwapasa V, Meshnick SR, 2001. Malaria enhances expression of CC chemokine receptor 5 on placental macrophages. J Infect Dis 183 : 967–972.
  65. Salvatori F, Scarlatti G, 2001. HIV type 1 chemokine receptor usage in mother-to-child transmission. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 17 : 925–935.
  66. Wu L, Paxton WA, Kassam N, Ruffing N, Rottman JB, Sullivan N, Choe H, Sodroski J, Newman W, Koup RA, Mackay CR, 1997. CCR5 levels and expression pattern correlate with infectability by macrophage-tropic HIV-1, in vitro. J Exp Med 185 : 1681–1691.
  67. Wolinsky SM, Wike CM, Korber BT, Hutto C, Parks WP, Rosenblum LL, Kunstman KJ, Furtado MR, Munoz JL, 1992. Selective transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 variants from mothers to infants. Science 255 : 1134–1137.
  68. Leroy V, Montcho C, Manigart O, Van de Perre P, Dabis F, Msellati P, Meda N, You B, Simonon A, Rouzioux C, 2001. Maternal plasma viral load, zidovudine and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Africa: DITRAME ANRS 049a trial. AIDS 15 : 517–522.
  69. Mofenson LM, Lambert JS, Stiehm ER, Bethel J, Meyer WA III, Whitehouse J, Moye J Jr, Reichelderfer P, Harris DR, Fowler MG, Mathieson BJ, Nemo GJ, 1999. Risk factors for perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in women treated with zidovudine. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 185 Team. N Engl J Med 341 : 385–393.
  70. Shaffer N, Roongpisuthipong A, Siriwasin W, Chotpitaya-sunondh T, Chearskul S, Young NL, Parekh B, Mock PA, Bhadrakom C, Chinayon P, Kalish ML, Phillips SK, Granade TC, Subbarao S, Weniger BG, Mastro TD, 1999. Maternal virus load and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype E transmission, Thailand. Bangkok Collaborative Perinatal HIV Transmission Study Group. J Infect Dis 179 : 590–599.
  71. St Louis ME, Kamenga M, Brown C, Nelson AM, Manzila T, Batter V, Behets F, Kabagabo U, Ryder RW, Oxtoby M, Quinn TC, Heyward WL, 1993. Risk for perinatal HIV-1 transmission according to maternal immunologic, virologic, and placental factors. JAMA 269 : 2853–2859.
  72. Abrams ET, Brown H, Chensue SW, Turner GD, Tadesse E, Lema VM, Molyneux ME, Rochford R, Meshnick SR, Rogerson SJ, 2003. Host response to malaria during pregnancy: placental monocyte recruitment is associated with elevated beta chemokine expression. J Immunol 170 : 2759–2764.
  73. Alkhatib G, Combadiere C, Broder CC, Feng Y, Kennedy PE, Murphy PM, Berger EA, 1996. CC CKR5: a RANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta receptor as a fusion cofactor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1. Science 272 : 1955–1958.
  74. Wasik TJ, Bratosiewicz J, Wierzbicki A, Whiteman VE, Rutstein RR, Starr SE, Douglas SD, Kaufman D, Sison AV, Polansky M, Lischner HW, Kozbor D, 1999. Protective role of beta-chemokines associated with HIV-specific Th responses against perinatal HIV transmission. J Immunol 162 : 4355–4364.
  75. Suguitan AL Jr, Leke RG, Fouda G, Zhou A, Thuita L, Metenou S, Fogako J, Megnekou R, Taylor DW, 2003. Changes in the levels of chemokines and cytokines in the placentas of women with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis 188 : 1074–1082.
  76. Yang C, Li M, Newman RD, Shi YP, Ayisi J, van Eijk AM, Otieno J, Misore AO, Steketee RW, Nahlen BL, Lal RB, 2003. Genetic diversity of HIV-1 in western Kenya: subtype-specific differences in mother-to-child transmission. AIDS 17 : 1667–1674.
  77. Paxton WA, Koup RA, 1997. Mechanisms of resistance to HIV infection. Springer Semin Immunopathol 18 : 323–340.
  78. Kuhn L, Coutsoudis A, Moodley D, Trabattoni D, Mngqundaniso N, Shearer GM, Clerici M, Coovadia HM, Stein Z, 2001. T-helper cell responses to HIV envelope peptides in cord blood: protection against intrapartum and breast-feeding transmission. AIDS 15 : 1–9.
  79. Simister NE, 2003. Placental transport of immunoglobulin G. Vaccine 21 : 3365–3369.
  80. van Eijk AM, Ayisi JG, ter Kuile FO, Misore AO, Otieno JA, Kolczak MS, Kager PA, Steketee RW, Nahlen BL, 2002. Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection as risk factors for anemia in infants in Kisumu, western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67 : 44–53.
  81. Cornet M, Le Hesran JY, Fievet N, Cot M, Personne P, Gounoue R, Beyeme M, Deloron P, 1998. Prevalence of and risk factors for anemia in young children in southern Cameroon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58 : 606–611.
  82. Reed SC, Wirima JJ, Steketee RW, 1994. Risk factors for anemia in young children in rural Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 : 170–174.
  83. Le Hesran JY, Cot M, Personne P, Fievet N, Dubois B, Beyeme M, Boudin C, Deloron P, 1997. Maternal placental infection with Plasmodium falciparum and malaria morbidity during the first 2 years of life. Am J Epidemiol 146 : 826–831.
  84. Deloron P, Dubois B, Le Hesran JY, Riche D, Fievet N, Cornet M, Ringwald P, Cot M, 1997. Isotypic analysis of maternally transmitted Plasmodium falciparum-specific antibodies in Cameroon, and relationship with risk of P. falciparum infection. Clin Exp Immunol 110 : 212–218.
  85. le Cessie S, Verhoeff FH, Mengistie G, Kazembe P, Broadhead R, Brabin BJ, 2002. Changes in haemoglobin levels in infants in Malawi: effect of low birth weight and fetal anaemia. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 86 : F182–F187.
  86. Cot M, Le Hesran JY, Staalsoe T, Fievet N, Hviid L, Deloron P, 2003. Maternally transmitted antibodies to pregnancy-associated variant antigens on the surface of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum: relation to child susceptibility to malaria. Am J Epidemiol 157 : 203–209.
  87. King CL, Malhotra I, Wamachi A, Kioko J, Mungai P, Wahab SA, Koech D, Zimmerman P, Ouma J, Kazura JW, 2002. Acquired immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 in the human fetus. J Immunol 168 : 356–364.
  88. Xi G, Leke RG, Thuita LW, Zhou A, Leke RJ, Mbu R, Taylor DW, 2003. Congenital exposure to Plasmodium falciparum antigens: prevalence and antigenic specificity of in utero-produced antimalarial immunoglobulin M antibodies. Infect Immun 71 : 1242–1246.
  89. van Eijk AM, Ayisi JG, ter Kuile FO, Misore AO, Otieno JA, Kolczak MS, Kager PA, Steketee RW, Nahlen BL, 2002. Placental malaria and HIV infection as risk factors for post-neonatal infant mortality in Kisumu, Kenya. The XIV International AIDS Conference. Barcelona, Spain.
  90. Verhoeff FH, Brabin BJ, Chimsuku L, Kazembe P, Russell WB, Broadhead RL, 1998. An evaluation of the effects of intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment in pregnancy on parasite clearance and risk of low birthweight in rural Malawi. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92 : 141–150.
  91. Slutsker L, Khoromana CO, Hightower AW, Macheso A, Wirima JJ, Breman JG, Heymann DL, Steketee RW, 1996. Malaria infection in infancy in rural Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 : 71–76.
  92. Taha TE, Canner JK, Dallabetta GA, Chiphangwi JD, Liomba G, Wangel AM, Saah AJ, Miotti PG, 1994. Childhood malaria parasitaemia and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Malawi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88 : 164–165.
  93. Mueller BU, 1994. Hematological problems and their management in children with HIV infection. Pizzo PA, Wilfert CM, eds. Pediatric AIDS: The Challenge of HIV Infection in Infants, Children and Adolescents. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 591–602.
  94. Bloland PB, Wirima JJ, Steketee RW, Chilima B, Hightower A, Breman JG, 1995. Maternal HIV infection and infant mortality in Malawi: evidence for increased mortality due to placental malaria infection. AIDS 9 : 721–726.
  95. Verhoeff FH, le Cessie S, Kalanda BF, Kazembe PN, Broad-head RL, Brabin BJ, 2004. Increase in post-neonatal infant mortality in Malawi: the importance of maternal. Ann Trop Paediatr: (in press).
  96. WHO, 2003. A Policy Framework for Malaria Prevention and Control during Pregnancy in the African Region. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  97. Shulman CE, Dorman EK, Cutts F, Kawuondo K, Bulmer JN, Peshu N, Marsh K, 1999. Intermittent sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to prevent severe anaemia secondary to malaria in pregnancy: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 353 : 632–636.
  98. Schultz LJ, Steketee RW, Macheso A, Kazembe P, Chitsulo L, Wirima JJ, 1994. The efficacy of antimalarial regimens containing sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and/or chloroquine in preventing peripheral and placental Plasmodium falciparum infection among pregnant women in Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 : 515–522.
  99. Parise ME, Ayisi JG, Nahlen BL, Schultz LJ, Roberts JM, Misore A, Muga R, Oloo AJ, Steketee RW, 1998. Efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of placental malaria in an area of Kenya with a high prevalence of malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 813–822.
  100. Verhoeff FH, Brabin BJ, Chimsuku L, Kazembe P, Russell WB, Broadhead RL, 1998. An evaluation of the effects of intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment in pregnancy on parasite clearance and risk of low birthweight in rural Malawi. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92 : 141–150.
  101. WHO, 2002. WHO Antenatal Care Randomized Trial: Manual for the Implementation of the New Model. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  102. WHO, 2004. Integrated Management of Pregnancy and Childbirth. Pregnancy, Childbirth and Postpartum Care. A Guide for Essential Practice. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  103. Colebunders R, Ryder R, Francis H, Nekwei W, Bahwe Y, Lebughe I, Ndilu M, Vercauteren G, Nseka K, Perriens J, 1991. Seroconversion rate, mortality, and clinical manifestations associated with the receipt of a human immunodeficiency virus-infected blood transfusion in Kinshasa, Zaire. J Infect Dis 164 : 450–456.
  104. Kamya MR, Kigonya CN, McFarland W, 2001. HIV infection may adversely affect clinical response to chloroquine therapy for uncomplicated malaria in children. AIDS 15 : 1187–1188.
  105. Colebunders R, Bahwe Y, Nekwei W, Ryder R, Perriens J, Nsimba K, Turner A, Francis H, Lebughe I, van der Stuyft P, Piot P, 1990. Incidence of malaria and efficacy of oral quinine in patients recently infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Kinshasa, Zaire. J Infect 21 : 167–173.
  106. Greenberg A, Nsa W, Ryder R, Medi M, Nzeza M, Kitadi N, Baangi M, Malanda N, Davachi F, Hassig S, 1991. Plasmodium falciparum malaria and perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in Kinshasa, Zaire. A prospective, longitudinal cohort study of 587 children. N Engl J Med 325 : 105–109.
  107. Muller O, Moser R, 1990. The clinical and parasitological presentation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda is unaffected by HIV-1 infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84 : 336–338.
  108. Birku Y, Mekonnen E, Bjorkman A, Wolday D, 2002. Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in patients with human immunodeficiency virus co-infection treated with artemisinin. Ethiopian Med J 40 : 17–26.
  109. UNAIDS, 2000. Provisional WHO/UNAIDS Secretariat Recommendations on the Use of Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis in Adults and Children Living with HIV/AIDS in Africa. Geneva: UNAIDS, World Health Organization.
  110. Steketee RW, Wirima JJ, Slutsker L, Roberts JM, Khoromana CO, Heymann DL, Breman JG, 1996. Malaria parasite infection during pregnancy and at delivery in mother, placenta, and newborn: efficacy of chloroquine and mefloquine in rural Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 : 24–32.
  111. Kayentao K, Kodio M, Mungai M, Parise ME, Coulibaly D, Issa C, Keita AS, Maiga B, Doumtabe D, Maiga H, Ongoiba A, Doumbo O, 2002. The Efficacy of Chloroquine- and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine-Containing Regimens in the Prevention of Maternal Anemia, Placental Malaria, and Low Birthweight in Mali. The Third MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference. November 17–22, 2002. Arusha, Tanzania.
  112. Steketee RW, Wirima JJ, Slutsker L, Heymann DL, Breman JG, 1996. The problem of malaria and malaria control in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 : 2–7.
  113. Newman RD, Parise ME, Slutsker L, Nahlen B, Steketee RW, 2003. Safety, efficacy and determinants of effectiveness of antimalarial drugs during pregnancy: implications for prevention programmes in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Med Int Health 8 : 488–506.
  114. Feikin DR, Dowell SF, Nwanyanwu OC, Klugman KP, Kazembe PN, Barat LM, Graf C, Bloland PB, Ziba C, Huebner RE, Schwartz B, 2000. Increased carriage of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Malawian children after treatment for malaria with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. J Infect Dis 181 : 1501–1505.
  115. Mehaffey PC, Barrett MS, Putnam SD, Jones RN, 1995. Antigonococcal activity of 11 drugs used for therapy or prophylaxis of malaria. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 23 : 11–13.
  116. Bloland PB, Redd SC, Kazembe P, Tembenu R, Wirima JJ, Campbell CC, 1991. Co-trimoxazole for childhood febrile illness in malaria-endemic regions. Lancet 337 : 518–520.
  117. Omar SA, Bakari A, Owiti A, Adagu IS, Warhurst DC, 2001. Co-trimoxazole compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenyan children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 : 657–660.
  118. Anglaret X, Chene G, Attia A, Toure S, Lafont S, Combe P, Manlan K, N’Dri-Yoman T, Salamon R, 1999. Early chemoprophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole for HIV-1-infected adults in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire: a randomised trial. Cotrimo-CI Study Group. Lancet 353 : 1463–1468.
  119. Iyer JK, Milhous WK, Cortese JF, Kublin JG, Plowe CV, 2001. Plasmodium falciparum cross-resistance between trimethoprim and pyrimethamine. Lancet 358 : 1066–1067.
  120. 2002. Viracept, (Agouron). Monographs from the 2002 Physicians Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc.
  121. 2002. Norvir, (Abbott). Monographs from the 2002 Physicians Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc.
  122. 2002. Agenerase, (GlaxoSmithKline). Monographs from the 2002 Physicians Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc.
  123. 2002. Rescriptor, (Agouron). Monographs from the 2002 Physicians Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc.
  124. 2002. Kaletra, (Abbott). Monographs from the 2002 Physicians Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc.
  125. 2002. Epivir, (GlaxoSmithKline). Monographs from the 2002 Physicians Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc.
  126. Nathoo S, Serghides L, Kain KC, 2003. Effect of HIV-1 antiret-roviral drugs on cytoadherence and phagocytic clearance of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitised erythrocytes. Lancet 362:1039–1041.
  127. Serghides L, Nathoo S, Walmsley S, Kain KC, 2002. CD36 deficiency induced by antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 16 : 353–358.
  128. Rogerson S, 2003. HIV-1, antiretroviral therapy, and malaria. Lancet 362 : 1008–1009.
  129. Sperber K, Kalb TH, Stecher VJ, Banerjee R, Mayer L, 1993. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by hydroxychloroquine in T cells and monocytes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 9 : 91–98.
  130. Chiang G, Sassaroli M, Louie M, Chen H, Stecher VJ, Sperber K, 1996. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by hydroxychloroquine: mechanism of action and comparison with zidovudine. Clin Ther 18 : 1080–1092.
  131. Tsai WP, Nara PL, Kung HF, Oroszlan S, 1990. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus infectivity by chloroquine. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 6 : 481–489.
  132. Savarino A, Gennero L, Chen HC, Serrano D, Malavasi F, Boelaert JR, Sperber K, 2001. Anti-HIV effects of chloroquine: mechanisms of inhibition and spectrum of activity. AIDS 15 : 2221–2229.
  133. Sperber K, Louie M, Kraus T, Proner J, Sapira E, Lin S, Stecher V, Mayer L, 1995. Hydroxychloroquine treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Clin Ther 17 : 622–636.
  134. Sperber K, Chiang G, Chen H, Ross W, Chusid E, Gonchar M, Chow R, Liriano O, 1997. Comparison of hydroxychloroquine with zidovudine in asymptomatic patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Clin Ther 19 : 913–923.
  135. Savarino A, Gennero L, Sperber K, Boelaert JR, 2001. The anti-HIV-1 activity of chloroquine. J Clin Virol 20 : 131–135.
  136. Savarino A, Boelaert JR, Cassone A, Majori G, Cauda R, 2003. Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today’s diseases? Lancet Infect Dis 3 : 722–727.
  137. Boelaert JR, Sperber K, Piette J, 1999. Chloroquine exerts an additive in vitro anti-HIV type 1 effect when associated with didanosine and hydroxyurea. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 15 : 1241–1247.
  138. Boelaert JR, Piette J, Sperber K, 2001. The potential place of chloroquine in the treatment of HIV-1-infected patients. J Clin Virol 20 : 137–140.
  139. Paton NI, Aboulhab J, Karim F, 2002. Hydroxychloroquine, hydroxycarbamide, and didanosine as economic treatment for HIV-1. Lancet 359 : 1667–1668.
  140. Boelaert JR, Yaro S, Augustijns P, Meda N, Schneider YJ, Schols D, Mols R, De Laere EA, Van de Perre P, 2001. Chloroquine accumulates in breast-milk cells: potential impact in the prophylaxis of postnatal mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. AIDS 15 : 2205–2207.
  141. Friis H, Gomo E, Koestel P, Ndhlovu P, Nyazema N, Krarup H, Michaelsen KF, 2001. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study in Zimbabwe. Am J Clin Nutr 73 : 1066–1073.
  142. Boelaert JR, Weinberg GA, Weinberg ED, 1996. Altered iron metabolism in HIV infection: mechanisms, possible consequences, and proposals for management. Infect Agents Dis 5 : 36–46.
  143. Friis H, Gomo E, Nyazema N, Ndhlovu P, Krarup H, Madsen PH, Michaelsen KF, 2003. Iron, haptoglobin phenotype, and HIV-1 viral load: a cross-sectional study among pregnant Zimbabwean women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 33 : 74–81.
  144. Weinberg ED, 1996. Iron withholding: a defense against viral infections. Biometals 9 : 393–399.
  145. Georgiou NA, van der Bruggen T, Oudshoorn M, Nottet HS, Marx JJ, van Asbeck BS, 2000. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in human mononuclear blood cells by the iron chelators deferoxamine, deferiprone, and bleomycin. J Infect Dis 181 : 484–490.
  146. Jacobus DP, 1996. Randomization to iron supplementation of patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease–an inadvertent but controlled study with results important for patient care. J Infect Dis 173 : 1044–1045.
  147. Salmon-Ceron D, Fontbonne A, Saba J, May T, Raffi F, Chidiac C, Patey O, Aboulker JP, Schwartz D, Vilde JL, 1995. Lower survival in AIDS patients receiving dapsone compared with aerosolized pentamidine for secondary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Study Group. J Infect Dis 172 : 656–664.
  148. Salhi Y, Costagliola D, Rebulla P, Dessi C, Karagiorga M, Lena-Russo D, de Montalembert M, Girot R, 1998. Serum ferritin, desferrioxamine, and evolution of HIV-1 infection in thalassemic patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 18 : 473–478.
  149. de Monye C, Karcher DS, Boelaert JR, Gordeuk VR, 1999. Bone marrow macrophage iron grade and survival of HIV-seropositive patients. AIDS 13 : 375–380.
  150. Teira R, Virosta M, Munoz J, Zubero Z, Santamaria JM, 1997. The safety of pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine for the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Scand J Infect Dis 29 : 595–596.
  151. Saiag P, Caumes E, Chosidow O, Revuz J, Roujeau JC, 1992. Drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell syndrome) in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. J Am Acad Dermatol 26 : 567–574.
  152. Nunn P, Kibuga D, Gathua S, Brindle R, Imalingat A, Wasunna K, Lucas S, Gilks C, Omwega M, Were J, McAdam K, 1991. Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions due to thiacetazone in HIV-1 seropositive patients treated for tuberculosis. Lancet 337 : 627–630.
  153. UNAIDS, 2002. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS.
  154. Rieder MJ, Shear NH, Kanee A, Tang BK, Spielberg SP, 1991. Prominence of slow acetylator phenotype among patients with sulfonamide hypersensitivity reactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther 49 : 13–17.
  155. Wolkenstein P, Carriere V, Charue D, Bastuji-Garin S, Revuz J, Roujeau JC, Beaune P, Bagot M, 1995. A slow acetylator genotype is a risk factor for sulphonamide-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Pharmacogenetics 5 : 255–258.
  156. Lee BL, Wong D, Benowitz NL, Sullam PM, 1993. Altered patterns of drug metabolism in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clin Pharmacol Ther 53 : 529–535.
  157. Saiag P, Capesius C, Roujeau JC, 1988. Abnormal pharmacokinetics of the culprit drug in toxic epidermal necrolysis. J Invest Dermatol 91 : 402.
  158. Sachs JD, 2001. A new global commitment to disease control in Africa. Nat Med 7 : 521–523.
  159. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2003. Review Manager (RevMan) [Computer program]. Oxford, United Kingdom.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.41
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.41
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 12 Jan 2004
  • Accepted : 27 Feb 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error