Volume 71, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Self-reported travel histories were used in a case-control study to determine whether movement of local residents to neighboring endemic areas was a risk factor for malaria in the town of Quibdo, Colombia. Multivariate analyses showed that among residents of Quibdo, traveling to an endemic area 8–14 days before disease onset was the strongest risk factor for both (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 28.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.9–60.32) and (adjusted OR = 14.24, 95% CI = 5.27–38.46) malaria. For individuals who did not travel outside Quibdo during the 8–14 days before disease onset, but who reported traveling 1–7, 15–21, or 22–30 days before disease onset also had an increased risk of malaria. Conversely, use of protection against mosquitoes was negatively associated with . These results highlight the need for malaria control measures that target mobile populations. A definition of imported malaria that allows distinction of imported from autochthonous cases in Quibdo town is proposed.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Prothero R, 1965. Migrants and Malaria. London: Longmans.
  2. Robert V, Macintyre K, Keating J, Trape J, Duchemin JB, Warren M, Beiber J, 2003. Malaria transmission in urban Sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 169–176.
  3. Watts T, Wray J, Ng’andu N, Draper C, 1990. Malaria in an urban and a rural area of Zambia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84 : 196–200.
  4. Jambou R, Tombo ML, Raharimalala L, Rakotonjanabelo A, Rabe T, Laventure S, Boisier P, 1998. Malaria in Antananarivo: evaluation of a post-epidemic situation. Sante 8 : 257–264.
  5. Mendez F, Carrasquilla G, Muñoz A, 2000. Risk factors associated with malaria infection in an urban setting. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 : 367–371.
  6. Carme B, 1993. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in urban zones of high endemic regions in black Africa. Potential seriousness and possible preventive measures. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 86 : 394–398.
  7. Montoya R, 1999. Comportamiento de la malaria durante 1999. Informe Quincenal Epidemiológico Nacional. Santafe de Bogota DC: Ministerio de Salud de Colombia, Instituto Nacional de Salud, 274–279.
  8. Jimeno M, Sotomayor M, Valderrama L, 1995. Choco: Biodiversidad Cultural y Medio Ambiente. Santafe de Bogota DC. Bogota: Fondo Financiera Electrica Nacional.
  9. Serra M, Gómez E, Carvajal R, Banguero M, Olano V, Córdoba F, 1999. Epidemiología de Malaria en el Área Urbana y Rural de Quibdo e Istmina. Quibdo: Fundación para la Educaci. Superior, División Salud.
  10. Harinasuta T, Bunnang D, 1988. The clinical features of malaria. Wernsdorfer WH, McGregor SI, eds. Malaria. Principles and Practice of Malariology. London: Churchill Livingstone, 709–779.
  11. Bruzzi P, Green SB, Byar DP, Brinton LA, Schairer C, 1985. Estimating the population attributable risk for multiple risk factors using case-control data. Am J Epidemiol 122 : 904–914.
  12. Somboon P, Aramrattana A, Lines J, Webber R, 1998. Entomological and epidemiological investigations of malaria transmission in relation to population movements in forest areas of north-west Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 29 : 3–9.
  13. Camargo LM, Ferreira MU, Krieger H, de Camargo EP, da Silva LP, 1994. Unstable hypoendemic malaria in Rondonia (western Amazon region, Brazil): epidemic outbreaks and work-associated incidence in an agro-industrial rural settlement. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 : 16–25.
  14. Sevilla-Casas E, 1993. Human mobility and malaria risk in the Naya River basin of Colombia. Soc Sci Med 37 : 1155–1167.
  15. Rowland M, Webster J, Saleh P, Chandramohan D, Freeman T, Pearcy B, Durrani N, Rab A, Mohammed N, 2002. Prevention of malaria in Afghanistan through social marketing of insecticide-treated nets: evaluation of coverage and effectiveness by cross-sectional surveys and passive surveillance. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 813–822.
  16. Greenwood B, 1989. Impact of culture and environmental changes on epidemiology and control of malaria and babesiosis. The microepidemiology of malaria and its importance to malaria control. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83 : 25–29.
  17. Lansang M, Belizario V, Bustos M, Saul A, Aguirre A, 1997. Risk factors for infection with malaria in a low endemic community in Bataan, the Philippines. Acta Trop 63 : 257–265.
  18. Fungladda W, Sornmani S, Klongkamnuankarn K, Hungsapruek T, 1987. Sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with hospital malaria patients in Kanchanaburi, Thailand. J Trop Med Hyg 90 : 233–237.
  19. Garcia M, Mendoza N, 2002. Evaluation of the Malaria Evaluation Program in the national laboratory network in Colombia. Biomedica (Bogota) 22 : 123–132.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 21 Nov 2003
  • Accepted : 22 Apr 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error