Volume 71, Issue 2_suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Ambitious new goals for control of malaria have been set and significant additional resources for malaria control are being mobilized. Yet for many of the countries most severely burdened by malaria, both baseline data and reliable monitoring of key impact indicators is lacking. For such countries, it will be difficult to know when targets are met or whether to make mid-course corrections if progress is inadequate. The new investments in malaria control have triggered resurgence in demand for health information, both for performance-based resource allocation and for health impact. We argue here that some of these resources will need to be diverted to support more integrated information systems able to monitor change and guide approaches, not just for malaria, but also for other important health and poverty related interventions. This paper urges a re-thinking of the nature of management information systems and sources in resource poor settings. A pathway is suggested that helps situate monitoring and evaluation more strategically in a framework of other information management steps for longitudinal, iterative, evidence-based decision making. Health Information Systems of the future will need much greater coherence in the use of information from disparate sources and much greater influence on action.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Millennium Assembly of the United Nations, 2000. Millennium Development Goals. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/.
  2. Nabarro D, Tayler E, 1998. The “roll back malaria” campaign. Science 280 : 2067–2068.
  3. World Health Organization, 2000. The African Summit on Roll Back Malaria. Geneva: World Health Organization. (WHO/CDS/RBM/2000.17).
  4. Delaunay V, Etard JF, Preziosi MP, Marra A, Simondon F, 2001. Decline of infant and child mortality rates in rural Senegal over a 37-year period (1963–1999). Int J Epidemiol 30 : 1286–1293.
  5. UNICEF, 2001. http://www.unicef.org/specialsession/about/sgreport-pdf/01_InfantAndUnder-FiveMortality_D7341Insert_English.pdf. Accessed January 9, 2004.
  6. Korenromp EL, Williams BG, Gouws E, Dye C, Snow RW, 2003. Measurement of trends in childhood malaria mortality in Africa: an assessment of progress toward targets based on verbal autopsy. Lancet Infect Dis 3 : 349–358.
  7. Sachs J, Malaney P, 2002. The economic and social burden of malaria. Nature 415 : 680–685.
  8. Lengeler C, 2000. Insecticide treated nets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 320.
  9. Schellenberg D, Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Aponte J, Vidal J, Tanner M, Mshinda H, Alonso P, 2001. Intermittent treatment for malaria and anaemia control at time of routine vaccinations in Tanzanian infants: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 357 : 1471–1477.
  10. Tanzania IMCI multi-country evaluation health facility survey study group, 2004. Health care for under-fives in rural Tanzania: effect of integrated management of childhood illness on observed quality of care. Health Policy Plan 19 : 1–10.
  11. World Bank, 2002. World Bank Estimates Cost of Reaching Millennium Development Goals at $40–60 Billion Annually in Additional Aid. Washington, DC: World Bank Press Release No.2002/212/5. 2002.
  12. WHO, UNICEF, 2003. The Africa Malaria Report 2003. Geneva: World Health Organization. Rep. WHO/CDS/MAL/ 2003.1093.
  13. WHO, 2000. Roll Back Malaria Framework for Monitoring Progress and Evaluating Outcomes and Impact. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/CDS/2000.25.
  14. Remme JH, Binka F, Nabarro D, 2001. Toward a framework and indicators for monitoring Roll Back Malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 : 76–84.
  15. INDEPTH, 2001. INDEPTH Monograph Series: Demographic Surveillance Systems for Assessing Populations and their Health in Developing Countries. Volume 1: Population, Health and Survival in INDEPTH Sites. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.
  16. Gwatkin DR, 2003. How well do health programmes reach the poor? Lancet 361 : 540–541.
  17. Wagstaff A, 2000. Socioeconomic inequalities in child mortality: comparisons across nine developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 78 : 19–29.
  18. Gwatkin DR, Rustein S, Johnson K, Pande R, Wagstaff A, 2000. Tanzania: Socio-Economic Differences in Health, Nutrition, and Population. Washington, DC: World Bank’s Health and Population Advisory Service.
  19. Woelk G, Chikuse P, 2000. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) Data to Describe Intra Country Inequities in Health Status: Zimbabwe. Harare, Zimbabwe: Social Science and Medicine Africa Network (SOMANET), University of Zimbabwe.
  20. Mwageni E, Masanja H, Momburi D, Mkilindi Y, Mbuya C, Kasale H, Reid G, de Savigny D, 2002. Health Seeking Behaviour in Severe Malaria in Rural Tanzania. Multilateral Initiative on Malaria. Third Multilateral Initiative on Malaria Pan-African Malaria Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, 2002.
  21. Rommelmann V, Setel P, Hemed Y, Mponezya H, Angeles G, Boerma T, 2003. Costs and results of information systems in Tanzania: descriptions of indicator coverage and systems with preliminary comparative costings. Measure Evaluation. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
  22. Connor SJ, Thomson MC, Flasse SP, Perryman AH, 1998. Environmental information systems in malaria risk mapping and epidemic forecasting. Disasters 22 : 39–56.
  23. Hay SI, Simba M, Busolo M, Noor AM, Guyatt HL, Ochola SA, Snow RW, 2002. Defining and detecting malaria epidemics in the highlands of western Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 555–562.
  24. Rogers DJ, Randolph SH, Snow RW, Hay SI, 2002. Satellite imagery in the study and forecast of malaria. Nature 415 : 710–715.
  25. Hay SI, Rogers DJ, Shanks D, Snow RW, Myers MF, Snow RW, 2001. Malaria early warning in Kenya. Trends Parasitol 17 : 95–99.
  26. Snow RW, Hay SI, Rogers DJ, Noor AM, Omumbo JA, Ochola S, 2000. Developing a Multi-Sensor Satellite Imagery Based Planning Tool for Malaria Control in Africa: Putting Research into Practice in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Medical Research Institute and Oxford, United Kingdom: University of Oxford.
  27. Cox J, Craig M, Le Sueur D, Sharp B, 1999. Mapping Malaria Risk in the Highlands of Africa. London and Durban, South Africa: HIMAL/MARA.
  28. Snow RW, Marsh K, Le Sueur D, 1996. The need for maps of transmission intensity to guide malaria control in Africa. Parasitol Today 12 : 455–457.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 21 Aug 2003
  • Accepted : 14 Jan 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error