Volume 71, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Since the few indirect markers available for assessing the development and the stage of intestinal schistosomiasis morbidity are weakly specific, endoscopy is still the only method able to detect severe forms of pathology. Therefore, we evaluated the isotype antibody response to the current schistosome antigen preparation (soluble egg antigens [SEA]) in 142 Senegalese patients infected with They were stratified into three different stages of pathology according to ultrasonographic, endoscopic, and clinical parameters (stage 1 = no detectable pathology; stage 2 = moderate morbidity; stage 3 = severe forms of pathology). Only median specific IgG4, IgE, and IgA responses changed according to the stage of pathology. The IgA level was significantly higher in stages 2 and 3 compared with stage 1, and the IgE level was higher in stage 3 compared with stage 1. A high specific IgG4 level was observed only in stage 3 and was significantly different compared with stage 2. We show an association between the variability of the specific response to SEA and the degree of morbidity, and demonstrate that IgA and IgG4 responses could be combined markers to easily discriminate the different stages of pathology due to infection with .


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. van der Werf MJ, de Vlas SJ, 2002. Morbidity and Infection with Schistosomes and Soil-Transmitted Helminths. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO TDR Strategic Direction: Schistosomiasis (who.int/tdr/diseases/schisto/direction.htm).
  2. Hagan P, Blumenthal UJ, Dunn D, Simpson AJG, Wilkins HA, 1991. Human IgE, IgG4 and resistance to reinfection with S. haematobium. Nature 349 : 243–245. [Google Scholar]
  3. Rihet P, Demeure CE, Bourgois A, Prata A, Dessein AJ, 1991. Evidence for an association between human resistance to Schistosoma mansoni and high anti-larval IgE levels. Eur J Immunol 21 : 2679–2686. [Google Scholar]
  4. Dunne DW, Butterworth AE, Fulford AJ, Kariuki HC, Langley JG, Ouma JH, Capron A, Pierce RJ, Sturrock RF, 1992. Immunity after treatment of human schistosomiasis: association between IgE antibodies to adult worm antigens and resistance to reinfection. Eur J Immunol 22 : 1483–1494. [Google Scholar]
  5. Hatz CF, 2001. The use of ultrasound in schistosomiasis. Adv Parasitol 48 : 225–284. [Google Scholar]
  6. Boisier P, Serieye J, Ravaoalimalala VA, Roux J, Esterre P, 1995. Ultrasonographical assessment of morbidity in schistosomiasis mansoni in Madagascar; a community-based study in a rural population. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89 : 208–210. [Google Scholar]
  7. Picquet M, Ernould JC, Vercruysse J, Southgate VR, Mbaye A, Sambou B, Niang M, Rollinson D, 1996. The epidemiology of human schistosomiasis in the Senegal River basin. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 : 340–346. [Google Scholar]
  8. Stelma FF, Talla I, Polman K, Niang M, Sturrock RF, Deelder AM, Gryseels B, 1993. Epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni infection in a recently exposed community in northern Senegal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49 : 701–706. [Google Scholar]
  9. Bonnard P, Lanuit R, Dompnier JP, Remoue F, Diop A, Ly A, Capron A, Riveau G, 2000. Critères échographiques prédictifs d’hypertension portale due à Schistosoma mansoni dans une zone d’endémie récente. Med Trop (Mars) 60 : 42–46. [Google Scholar]
  10. World Health Organization, 2003. Use of praziquantel in pregnant and lactating women. World Health Organ Drug Information 17 : 29. [Google Scholar]
  11. Remoué F, Rogerie F, Gallissot MC, Guyatt HL, Neyrinck JL, Diakhate MM, Niang M, Butterworth AE, Auriault C, Capron A, Riveau G, 2000. Sex-dependent neutralizing antibodies response to Schistosoma mansoni 28GST vaccinal antigen in infected human population. J Infect Dis 181 : 1855–1859. [Google Scholar]
  12. Silveira AM, Bethony J, Gazzinelli A, Kloos H, Fraga LA, Alvares MC, Prata A, Guerra HL, Loverde PT, Correa-Oliveira R, Grazzinelli G, 2002. High levels IgG4 to Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen in individuals with periportal fibrosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 542–549. [Google Scholar]
  13. Perlmann P, Perlmann H, Flyg BW, Hagstedt M, Elghazali G, Worku S, Fernandez V, Rutta AS, Troye-Blomberg M, 1997. Immunoglobulin E, a pathogenic factor in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Infect Immun 65 : 116–121. [Google Scholar]
  14. Morgan J, Pinto Dias JC, Colley DG, Gontijo ED, Bahia-Oliveira L, Correa-Oliveira R, Powell MR, 1998. Analysis of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibody isotype by Western blot in sera from patients with different clinical manifestations of Chagas’ disease. J Parasitol 84 : 641–643. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 Dec 2003
  • Accepted : 10 Mar 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error