Volume 71, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Infections with hepatitis C virus, (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human T lymphotropic type I/II (HTLV-I/II) virus are commonly found in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We conducted a seroepidemiologic study among 174 HIV-positive heterosexuals in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1999. Evidence of exposure to HCV, HBV, and HTLV-I/II was found in 32%, 17%, and 5%, respectively. A higher prevalence of HBV infection was observed among males (33%) compared with females (12%; < 0.05). Among women, a prior history of a sexually transmitted infection, injecting drug use (IDU), having had more than five lifetime sex partners, and having exchanged sex-for-goods were significantly associated with HCV infection, whereas an IDU history, syringe sharing, and having exchanged sex-for-goods were found to be associated with HBV infection. Among men, an IDU history and syringe/needle sharing were significantly associated with HCV infection. The IDU-related and sexual transmission of hepatitis viruses constitute a significant problem among young, HIV-infected, heterosexuals in Argentina.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Memon MI, Memon MA, 2002. Hepatitis C: an epidemiological review. J Viral Hepat 9 : 84–100.
  2. Stroffolini T, Lorenzoni U, Menniti-Ippolito F, Infantolino D, Chiaramonte M, 2001. Hepatitis C virus infection in spouses: sexual transmission or common exposure to the same risk factors? Am J Gastroenterol 96 : 3138–3141.
  3. Lamden KH, Kennedy N, Beeching NJ, Lowe D, Morrison CL, Mallinson H, Mutton KJ, Syed Q, 1998. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections: risk factors among drug users in Northwest England. J Infec 37 : 260–269.
  4. Bell J, Batey RG, Farrell GC, Crewe EB, Cunningham AL, Byth K, 1990. Hepatitis C virus in intravenous drug users. Med J Aust 153 : 274–276.
  5. Kane M, 1995. Global programme for control of hepatitis B infection. Vaccine 13 (Suppl 1): S47–S49.
  6. Margolis HS, Alter MJ, Hadler SC, 1991. Hepatitis B: evolving epidemiology and implications for control. Semin Liver Dis 11 : 84–92.
  7. Alter HJ, Purcell RH, Gerin JL, Gerin JL, London WT, Kaplan PM, McAuliffe VJ, Wagner J, Holland PV, 1977. Transmission of hepatitis B to chimpanzees by hepatitis B surface antigen-positive saliva and semen. Infect Immun 16 : 928–933.
  8. Mueller N, 1991. The epidemiology of HTLV-I infection. Cancer Causes Control 2 : 37–52.
  9. Lairmore MD, Jacobson S, Gracia F, De BK, Castilla L, Larreategui M, Roberto BD, Levine PH, Blattner WA, Kaplan JE, 1990. Isolation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 from Guaymi Indians in Panama. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87 : 8840–8844.
  10. Lee H, Swasnson P, Shorty VS, Zack JA, Rosenblatt JD, Chen ISY, 1989. High rate of HTLV-II infection in seropositive IV drug abusers in New Orleans. Science 244 : 471–475.
  11. Khabbaz RF, Onorato IM, Cannon RO, Hartley TM, Roberts B, Hosein B, Kaplan JE, 1992. Seroprevalence of HTLV-I and HTLV-II among intravenous drug users and persons in clinics for sexually transmitted diseases. N Engl J Med 326 : 375–380.
  12. Dipierri JE, Tajima K, Cartier Robirosa L, Sonoda S, 1999. A seroepidemiological survey of HTLV-I/II carriers in the Puna Jujeña. Medicina (B Aires) 59 : 717–720.
  13. Biglione M, Pizarro M, Martínez Peralta L, Libonatti O, Avila M, 1999. High Prevalence of HTLV-I Infection in Argentinian Blood Donors. A new HTLV-I Endemic Area? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 20 : 101–102.
  14. Bouzas MB, Zapiola I, Quiruelas S, Gorvein D, Panzita A, Rey J, Carnese FP, Corral R, Perez C, Zala C, 1994. HTLV type I and HTLV type II infection among Indians and natives from Argentina. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 10 : 1567–1571.
  15. Ferrer JF, Del Pino N, Esteban E, Sherman MP, Dube S, Dube D, Basombrio MA, Pimentel E, Segovia A, Quiruelas S, Poiesz BJ, 1993. High rate of infection with the human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type II in four Indian populations of Argentina. Virology 197 : 576–584.
  16. Biglione M, Gessain A, Quiruelas S, Fay O, Taborda MA, Fernández E, Lupo S, Panzita A, de The G, 1993. Endemic HTLV-II infection among Tobas and Matacos Amerindians from north Argentina (letter). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 6 : 631–633.
  17. Ávila MM, Pando MA, Carrion G, Martinez Peralta L, Salomon H, Gomez Carrillo M, Sanchez J, Maulen S, Hierholzer J, Marinello M, Negrete M, Russell KL, Carr JK, 2002. Two HIV-1 epidemics in Argentina: different genetic subtypes associated with different risk groups. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 29 : 422–426.
  18. Gutfraind Z, Blejer J, Saguier MC, Gomez Carretero ML, Pirola DA, Carreras Vescio LA, 1994. Seroprevalence of HTLV-I/HTLV-II in blood donors in Buenos Aires. Vox Sang 67 : 408–409.
  19. del Pino N, Martínez Peralta L, Pampuro S, Pimentel E, Libonatti O, 1994. HTLV-I/II seroprevalence and coinfection with other pathogens in blood donors in Buenos Aires (letter). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 7 : 206–207.
  20. Staples CT, Rimland D, Dudas D, 1999. Hepatitis C in the HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) Atlanta V.A. (Veterans Affairs Medical Center) Cohort Study (HAVACS): the effect of coinfection on survival. Clin Infect Dis 29 : 150–154.
  21. Soriano V, Rodriguez-Rosado R, Garcia-Samaniego J, 1999. Management of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients. AIDS 13 : 539–546.
  22. Bonacini M, Puoti M, 2000. Hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: diagnosis, natural history, meta analysis of sexual and vertical transmission, and therapeutic issues. Arch Intern Med 160 : 3365–3373.
  23. Sherman KE, O’Brien J, Gutierrez AG, Harrison S, Urdea M, Neuwald P, Wilber J, 1993. Quantitative evaluation of hepatitis C virus RNA in patients with concurrent human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Clin Microbiol 31 : 2679–2682.
  24. Bonacini M, Govindarajan S, Blatt LM, Schmid P, Conrad A, Lindsay K, 1999. Patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus demonstrate higher levels of hepatic HCV RNA. J Viral Hepat 6 : 203–208.
  25. Eyster ME, Alter HJ, Aledort LM, Quan S, Hatzakis A, Goedert JJ, 1991. Heterosexual co-transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Ann Intern Med 115 : 764–768.
  26. Global Illicit Drug Trends 2002. ODCCP, Studies on Drugs and Crime. United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention. http://www.unodc.org, last access September 2003.
  27. Roberts EA, Yeung L, 2002. Maternal-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 36 (Suppl 1): S106–S113.
  28. Bonacini M, Puoti M, 2000. Hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: diagnosis, natural history, meta-analysis of sexual and vertical transmission, and therapeutic issues. Arch Intern Med 160 : 3365–3373.
  29. Ranger-Rogez S, Alain S, Denis F, 2002. Virus des hépatites: transmission mére-enfant. Pathol Biol (Paris) 50 : 568–575.
  30. Hino S, Yamaguchi K, Katamine S, Sugiyama H, Amagasaki T, Kinoshita K, Yoshida Y, Doi H, Tsuji Y, Miyamoto T, 1985. Mother-to-child transmission of human T-cell leukemia virus type-I. Jpn J Cancer Res 76 : 474–480.
  31. Levine PH, Blattner WA, 1987. The epidemiology of diseases associated with HTLV-I and HTLV-II. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1 : 501–510.
  32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001. National Hepatitis C Prevention Strategy: A Comprehensive Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Its Consequences. Atlanta: Ceners for Dusease Control and Prevention.
  33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1998. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47 : 1–39.
  34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1991. Hepatitis B virus: a comprehensive strategy for eliminating transmission in the United States through universal childhood vaccination - recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 40 : 1–25.
  35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1999. Notice to readers update: recommendations to prevent hepatitis B virus transmission - United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 48 : 33–34.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 04 Nov 2003
  • Accepted : 09 Feb 2004

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error