1921
Volume 71, Issue 2_suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

The rapid growth of cities in sub-Saharan Africa, much of it driven by rural-urban migration, is associated with complex transformations of these ecosystems and an intricate set of challenges for malaria control. Urban malaria transmission is substantially less intense and much more focal than in rural and peri-urban settings. However, the danger of epidemics is higher and the presence of substantial non-immune populations places people of all ages at comparable levels of risk. The limited number of breeding sites in urban centers suggests that prevention strategies based on vector control, with emphasis on environmental management, should be a central feature of urban malaria control programs. We focus on malaria in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Following a brief review of the 100-year history of malaria control in this urban center, we describe and evaluate a control program that operated from 1988 to 1996 as a consequence of a bilateral agreement between the governments of Tanzania and Japan. We present an innovative urban malaria risk mapping methodology based on high-resolution aerial photography with ground-based validation. This strategy clarifies that remote sensing technology at a level of resolution of one meter is essential if this kind of information is to play a role in guiding the detailed specification of intervention strategies for urban malaria control. The Tanzania-Japan multiple-intervention malaria control program, adaptively implemented over time, is described and evaluated with implications for urban malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa more generally.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.103
2004-08-01
2017-09-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/71/2_suppl/0700103.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.103&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ministry of Health, 2002. National Malaria Medium Term Strategic Plan, July 2002–June 2006. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Ministry of Health and Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 75.
  2. Ross R, 1910. The Prevention of Malaria. New York: E. P. Dutton & Company.
  3. Watson M, 1921. The Prevention of Malaria in the Federated Malay States: a Record of Twenty Years’ Progress. London: John Murray.
  4. Watson M, 1953. African Highway: The Battle for Health in Central Africa. London: John Murray.
  5. Lindsay SW, Emerson PM, Charlwood JD, 2002. Reducing malaria by mosquito-proofing houses. Trends Parasitol 18 : 510–514.
  6. Utzinger J, Tozan Y, Doumani F, Singer BH, 2002. The economic payoffs of integrated malaria control in the Zambian copperbelt between 1930 and 1950. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 657–677.
  7. Schilling C, 1910. The prevention of malaria in German possessions. Ross R, ed. The Prevention of Malaria. New York: E. P. Dutton & Company, 451–474.
  8. Wolff MM, 1994. Malaria and its control. Lessons learned, present situation and future prospects with special reference to Tanzania. National Institute for Medical Research, ed. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Joint Scientific Conference with a Seminar on Malaria Control Research. Arusha, Tanzania: National Institute for Medical Research, 136–155.
  9. Pomeroy AWJ, 1920. The prophylaxis of malaria in Dares-Salaam, east Africa. J R Army Med Corps 35 : 46–63.
  10. Orenstein AJ, 1913. Contribution to the study of the value of quininization in the eradication of malaria. JAMA 63 : 1931–1933.
  11. Ollwig H, 1903. Die Bekämpfung der Malaria. Ztschr Hyg Infektionskh 43 : 133–155.
  12. Manteufel P, 1913. 12 Jahre Malariabekämpfung nach dem von Robert Koch angegebenen Verfahren. Ztschr Hyg Infektionskh 76 : 350–360.
  13. Robert V, Macintyre K, Keating J, Trape J-F, Duchemin J-B, Warren M, Beier J, 2003. Malaria transmission in urban sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 169–176.
  14. Trape JF, Pison G, Spiegel A, Enel C, Rogier C, 2002. Combating malaria in Africa. Trends Parasitol 18 : 224–230.
  15. Hay SI, Rogers DJ, Toomer JF, Snow RW, 2000. Annual Plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rates (EIR) across Africa: literature survey, Internet access and review. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 : 113–127.
  16. Phillips DR, 1993. Urbanization and human health. Parasitology 106 (Suppl): S93–S107.
  17. United Nations, 2002. World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision Population Database. United Nations Population Division. http://esa.un.org/unpp/.
  18. Clyde DF, 1962. History of the Medical Services of Tanganyika. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Government Press.
  19. Sachs J, Malaney P, 2002. The economic and social burden of malaria. Nature 415 : 680–685.
  20. Keiser J, Utzinger J, Castro MC, Smith TA, Tanner M, Singer BH, 2004. Urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa and implication for malaria control. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 (Suppl 2): 118–127.
  21. Clyde DF, 1961. Malaria control in Tanganyika under the German administration - Part I. East Afr Med J 38 : 27–42.
  22. Kilama WL, 1991. Control of arthropods of public health importance. Mwaluko GMP, Kilama WL, Mandara MP, Murru M, Macpherson CNL, eds. Health and Disease in Tanzania. London: Harper Collins Academic, 199–218.
  23. Mandara MP, 1991. Health services in Tanzania: a historical overview. Mwaluko GMP, Kilama WL, Mandara MP, Murru M, Macpherson CNL, eds. Health and Disease in Tanzania. London: Harper Collins Academic, 1–7.
  24. Kilama WL, 1994. Malaria in Tanzania: past and present. National Institute for Medical Research, ed. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Joint Scientific Conference with a Seminar on Malaria Control Research. Arusha, Tanzania: National Institute for Medical Research, 7–11.
  25. Tanganyika HD, 1966. Annual Report of the Health Division 1964. Volume I. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Government Press.
  26. Bang YH, Sabuni IB, Tonn RJ, 1975. Integrated control of urban mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam using community sanitation supplemented by larviciding. East Afr Med J 52 : 578–588.
  27. Kilama WL, Kihamia CM, 1991. Malaria. Mwaluko GMP, Kilama WL, Mandara MP, Murru M, Macpherson CNL, eds. Health and Disease in Tanzania. London: Harper Collins Academic, 117–132.
  28. MARA/ARMA, 2002. MARA LITe for Africa. Johannesburg, South Africa: South African Medical Research Council, Malaria Research Program.
  29. Briggs J, Mwamfupe D, 2000. Peri-urban development in an era of structural adjustment in Africa: the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Urban Stud 37 : 797–809.
  30. Knudsen AB, Slooff R, 1992. Vector-borne disease problems in rapid urbanization: new approaches to vector control. Bull World Health Organ 70 : 1–6.
  31. Killeen GF, Fillinger U, Knols BG, 2002. Advantages of larval control for African malaria vectors: low mobility and behavioural responsiveness of immature mosquito stages allow high effective coverage. Malar J 1 : 8.
  32. Carter R, Mendis KN, Roberts D, 2000. Spatial targeting of interventions against malaria. Bull World Health Organ 78 : 1401–1411.
  33. World Health Organization, 1993. Implementation of the global malaria control strategy. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 839.
  34. Keiser J, Utzinger J, Premji Z, Yamagata Y, Singer BH, 2002. Acridine orange for malaria diagnosis: its diagnostic performance, its promotion and implementation in Tanzania, and the implications for malaria control. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 : 643–654.
  35. Atkinson PM, Curran PJ, 1997. Choosing an appropriate spatial resolution for remote sensing investigations. Photogrammetric Eng Remote Sensing 63 : 1345–1351.
  36. Beck LR, Lobitz BM, Wood BL, 2000. Remote sensing and human health: new sensors and new opportunities. Emerg Infect Dis 6 : 217–227.
  37. Curran PJ, Atkinson PM, Foody GM, Milton EJ, 2000. Linking remote sensing, land cover and disease. Adv Parasitol 47 : 37–80.
  38. Trape JF, Zoulani A, 1987. Malaria and urbanization in central Africa: the example of Brazzaville. Part III: Relationships between urbanization and the intensity of malaria transmission. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81 (Suppl 2): 19–25.
  39. Yhdego M, Majura P, 1988. Malaria control in Tanzania. Environ Int 14 : 479–483.
  40. Bos R, Mills A, 1987. Financial and economic aspects of environmental management for vector control. Parasitol Today 3 : 160–163.
  41. Drakeley C, Schellenberg D, Kihonda J, Sousa CA, Arez AP, Lopes D, Lines J, Mshinda H, Lengeler C, Armstrong Schellenberg J, Tanner M, Alonso P, 2003. An estimation of the entomological inoculation rate for Ifakara: a semi-urban area in a region of intense malaria transmission in Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health 8 : 767–774.
  42. Mwageni E, Momburi D, Juma Z, Irema M, Masanja H, 2002. Rufiji Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania. INDEPTH, ed. Population and Health in Developing Countries. Volume 1. Population, Health and Survival at INDEPTH Sites. Ottawa: INDEPTH Network and International Development Research Centre, 173–182.
  43. Mwageni EA, Irema M, 1999. Demographic Surveillance as a Source of Data for Health Management Information System (HMIS): experiences from the Rufiji Demographic Surveillance System (RDSS). 18th Annual Scientific Conference of Tanzania Public Health Association. Dodoma, Tanzania, 67–74.
  44. Mswia R, Whiting D, Kabadi G, Masanja H, Setel P, 2002. Dar es Salaam Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania. INDEPTH, ed. Population and Health in Developing Countries. Volume 1. Population, Health and Survival at INDEPTH Sites. Ottawa: INDEPTH Network and International Development Research Centre, 143–150.
  45. Armstrong Schellenberg J, Mukasa O, Abdulla S, Marchant T, Lengeler C, Kikumbih N, Mshinda H, Nathan R, 2002. Ifakara Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania. INDEPTH, ed. Population and Health in Developing Countries. Volume 1. Population, Health and Survival at INDEPTH Sites. Ottawa: INDEPTH Network and IDRC, 159–164.
  46. Mswia R, Kabadi G, Whiting D, Masanja H, Setel P, 2002. Morogoro Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania. INDEPTH, ed. Population and Health in Developing Countries. Volume 1. Population, Health and Survival at INDEPTH Sites. Ottawa: INDEPTH Network and International Development Research Centre, 165–171.
  47. Mtasiwa D, Siegfried G, Tanner M, Pichette P, 2003. From managing diseases to managing health systems. The Dar es Salaam city/region. Minimum Package of Health and Related Management Activities (MPHMA). Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Dar es Salaam City Medical Office of Health and Basel, Switzerland: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Swiss Tropical Institute, 216.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.103
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.103
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 21 Aug 2003
  • Accepted : 25 Nov 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error