Volume 70, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


A cross-sectional study was performed in February 2001 to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of infection in army personnel who resided in an army base in Chonburi, Thailand. A total of 904 army personnel were enrolled in this study. Short-term cultivation was used to detect in stool samples. In this population, was the parasite most frequently found, and was identified in 334 of 904 stool specimens (36.9%). A significant association between infection and symptoms was identified that might emphasize the role of as a human pathogen. After adjustment for potential confounders, significantly increased risk of being infection with was associated with being a private, working in a specific unit, and consuming unboiled drinking water. Thus, waterborne transmission of infection was indicated at this army base. However, other modes of transmission cannot be ruled out.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Hahn P, Fleischer NFK, 1985. Blastocystis hominis-is it of clinical importance? Trop Med Parasitol 36 : 7–8.
  2. Hussain Qadri SM, Al-Okaili GA, Al-Dayel F, 1989. Clinical significance of Blastocystis hominis. J Clin Microbiol 27 : 2407–2409.
  3. Udkow MP, Markell EK, 1993. Blastocystis hominis: prevalence in asymptomatic versus symptomatic hosts. J Infect Dis 168 : 242–244.
  4. Shilm DR, Hoge CW, Rajah R, Rabold JG, Echeverria P, 1995. Is Blastocystis hominis a cause of diarrhea in travelers? A prospective controlled study in Nepal. Clin Infect Dis 21 : 97–101.
  5. Kain KC, Noble MA, Freeman HJ, Barteluk RL, 1987. Epidemiological and clinical features associated with Blastocystis hominis infection. Diag Microbiol Infect Dis 8 : 235–244.
  6. Llibre JM, Tor J, Manterola JM, Carbonell C, Foz M, 1989. Blastocystis hominis chronic diarrhoea in AIDS patients (letter). Lancet i : 221.
  7. Doyle PW, Helgason MM, Mathias RG, Proctor EM, 1990. Epidemiology and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis. J Clin Microbiol 28 : 116–121.
  8. Sheehan JP, Ulchaker MM, 1990. Blastocystis hominis treatable cause of diabetes diarrhea. Diabetes Care 13 : 906–907.
  9. Garavelli PL, Scoglione L, Libanore M, Rolston K, 1991. Blastocystosis: a new disease in patients with leukemia (letter). Hematologica 76 : 80.
  10. Cirioni O, Giacometti A, Drenaggi D, Ancarani F, Scalise G, 1999. Prevalence and clinical relevance of Blastocystis hominis in diverse patient cohorts. Eur J Epidemiol 15 : 989–993.
  11. Ashford RW, Atkinson EA, 1992. Epidemiology of Blastocystis hominis infection in Papua New Guinea: age-prevalence and associations with other parasites. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 86 : 129–136.
  12. Nimri LF, 1993. Evidence of an epidemic of Blastocystis hominis infections in preschool children in northern Jordan. J Clin Microbiol 31 : 2706–2708.
  13. Borda CE, Rea MJ, Rosa JR, Maidana C, 1996. Intestinal parasitism in San Cayetano, Corrientes, Argentina. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 30 : 227–233.
  14. Taamasri P, Mungthin M, Rangsin R, Tongupprakarn B, Areekul W, Leelayoova S, 2000. Transmission of intestinal blastocystosis related to the quality of drinking water. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 31 : 112–117.
  15. Mungthin M, Suwannasaeng R, Naaglor T, Areekul W, Leelayoova S, 2001. Asymptomatic intestinal microsporidiosis in Thai orphans and child-care workers. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 : 304–306.
  16. Taamasri P, Leelayoova S, Rangsin R, Naaglor T, Ketupanya A, Mungthin M, 2002. Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis carriage in Thai army personnel based in Chonburi, Thailand. Mil Med 167 : 643–646.
  17. Leelayoova S, Taamasri P, Rangsin R, Naaglor T, Thathaisong U, Mungthin M, 2002. In vitro cultivation: a sensitive method for detecting Blastocystis hominis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 : 803–807.
  18. Jones WR, 1946. The experimental infection of rats with Entamoeba histolytica. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 40 : 130–140.
  19. Russo AR, Stone SL, Taplin ME, Snapper HJ, Doern GV, 1988. Presumptive evidence for Blastocystis hominis as a cause of colitis. Arch Intern Med 148 : 1064.
  20. Ghosh K, Ayyaril M, Nirmala V, 1998. Acute GVHD involving the gastrointestinal tract and infestation with Blastocystis hominis in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 22 : 1115–1117.
  21. Giacometti A, Cirioni O, Fiorentini A, Fortuna M, Scalise G, 1999. Irritable bowel syndrome in patients with Blastocystis hominis infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 18 : 436–439.
  22. Garcia LS, Bruckner DA, Clancy MN, 1984. Clinical relevance of Blastocystis hominis. Lancet i : 1233–1234.
  23. Böhm-Gloning B, Knobloch J, Walderich B, 1997. Five subgroups of Blastocystis hominis isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients revealed by restriction site analysis of PCR-amplified 16S-like rDNA. Trop Med Int Health 2 : 771–778.
  24. Clark GC, 1997. Extensive genetic diversity in Blastocystis hominis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 87 : 79–83.
  25. Hoevers J, Holman P, Logan K, Hommel M, Ashford R, Snowden K, 2000. Restriction- fragment-length polymorphism analysis of small-subunit rRNA genes of Blastocystis hominis isolates from geographically diverse human hosts. Parasitol Res 86 : 57–61.
  26. Moe KT, Singh M, Howe J, Ho LC, Tan SW, Ng GC, Chen XQ, Yap EH, 1996. Observations on the ultrastructure and viability of the cystic stage of Blastocystis hominis from human feces. Parasitol Res 82 : 439–444.
  27. Moe KT, Singh M, Howe J, Ho LC, Tan SW, Ng GC, Chen XQ, Yap EH, 1997. Experimental Blastocystis hominis infection in laboratory mice. Parasitol Res 83 : 319–325.
  28. Nimri L, Batchoun, 1994. Intestinal colonization of symptomatic and asymptomatic schoolchildren with Blastocystis hominis. J Clin Microbiol 32 : 2865–2866.
  29. Tan KSW, Singh M, Yap EH, 2002. Recent advances in Blastocystis hominis research: hot spots in terra incognita. Int J Parasitol 32 : 789–804.
  30. Zaki M, Zaman V, Sheikh NA, 1996. Resistance of Blastocystis hominis cysts to chlorine. J Pakistan Med Assoc 46 : 178–179.
  31. Pakandl M, 1991. Occurrence of Blastocystis sp. in pigs. Folia Parasitol 38 : 297–301.
  32. Boreham PFL, Stenzel DJ, 1993. Blastocystis in humans and animals: morphology, biology, and epizootiology. Adv Parasitol 32 : 1–70.
  33. Duda A, Stenzel DJ, Boreham PFL, 1998. Detection of Blastocystis sp. in domestic dogs and cats. Vet Parasitol 76 : 9–17.
  34. Abe N, Nagoshi M, Takami K, Sawano Y, Yoshikawa H, 2002. A survey of Blastocystis sp. in livestock, pets, and zoo animals in Japan. Vet Parasitol 106 : 203–212.
  35. Rajah SH, Suresh KG, Vellayan S, Mak JW, Khairul AA, Init I, Vennila GD, Saminathan R, Ramakrishnan K, 1999. Blastocystis in animal handlers. Parasito Res 85 : 1032–1033.
  36. Noël C, Peyronnet C, Gerbod D, Edgcomb VP, Delgado-Viscogliosi P, Sogin ML, Capron M, Viscogliosi E, Zenner L, 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis isolates from different hosts based on the comparison of small-subunit rRNA gene sequences. Mol Biochem Parasitol 126 : 119–123.
  37. Thathaisong U, Worapong J, Mungthin M, Tanariya P, Viputtigul K, Sudatis A, Noonai A, Leelayoova S, 2003. Blastocystis isolates from a pig and a horse are closely related to Blastocystis hominis. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 967–975.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 02 Jul 2003
  • Accepted : 17 Oct 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error