Volume 70, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Malaria vaccine RTS,S combined with thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) and formulated with AS02A (RTS,S+TRAP/AS02A) is safe and immunogenic in adult humans and rhesus monkeys (). Here, RTS,S+TRAP/AS02A was administered on a 0-, 1-, and 3-month schedule to three cohorts of infant monkeys, along with adult comparators. Cohort 1 evaluated 1/5, 1/2, and full adult doses, with the first dose administration at one month of age; cohort 2 monkeys received full adult doses, with the first dose administration at one versus three months of age; and, cohort 3 compared infants gestated in mothers with or without previous RTS,S/AS02A immunization. Immunization site reactogenicity was mild. Some infants, including the phosphate-buffered saline only recipient, developed transient iron-deficiency anemia, which is considered a result of repeated phlebotomies. All RTS,S+TRAP/AS02A regimens induced vigorous antibody responses that persisted through 12 weeks after the last vaccine dose. Modest lymphoproliferative and ELISPOT (interferon-γ and interleukin-5) responses, particularly to TRAP, approximated adult comparators. RTS,S+TRAP/AS02A was safe and well tolerated. Vigorous antibody production and modest, selective cell-mediated immune responses suggest that RTS,S+TRAP/AS02A may be immunogenic in human infants.


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  • Received : 17 Nov 2003
  • Accepted : 19 Jan 2004

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