Volume 70, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


To relate stability of malaria transmission to biologic characteristics of vector mosquitoes throughout the world, we derived an index representing the contribution of regionally dominant vector mosquitoes to the force of transmission. This construct incorporated published estimates describing the proportion of blood meals taken from human hosts, daily survival of the vector, and duration of the transmission season and of extrinsic incubation. The result of the calculation was displayed globally on a 0.5° grid. We found that these biologic characteristics of diverse vector mosquitoes interact with climate to explain much of the regional variation in the intensity of transmission. Due to the superior capacity of many tropical mosquitoes as vectors of malaria, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, antimalaria interventions conducted in the tropics face greater challenges than were faced by formerly endemic nations in more temperate climes.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. WHO, 1997. World malaria situation in 1994. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 72 : 269–276. [Google Scholar]
  2. Curtin PD, 1989. Death by Migration: Europe’s Encounter with the Tropical World in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  3. Curtin PD, 1998. Disease and Empire: The Health of European troops in the Conquest of Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  4. Acemoglu D, Johnson S, Robinson JA, 2000. The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper No. 7771.
  5. Craig MH, Snow RW, le Sueur D, 1999. A climate-based distribution model of malaria transmission in Africa. Parasitol Today 15 : 105–111. [Google Scholar]
  6. Kleinschmidt I, Clarke GPY, Bagayoko M, Craig MH, le Sueur D, 2000. A spatial statistical approach to malaria mapping. Int J Epidemiol 29 : 355–361. [Google Scholar]
  7. MacDonald G, 1952. The analysis of equilibrium in malaria. Trop Dis Bull 49 : 813–829. [Google Scholar]
  8. Boyd MF, 1926. Studies of the epidemiology of malaria in the coastal lowlands of Brazil, made before and after execution of control measures. Am J Hyg Monogr 5.
  9. Komp WHW, 1948. The anopheline vectors of malaria of the world. Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Tropical Medicine. Malaria. Washington, DC: May 10–18, 1948, 644–655.
  10. Metselaar D, Van Theil PM, 1959. Classification of malaria. Trop Geogr Malaria 11 : 157–161. [Google Scholar]
  11. Molineaux L, 1988. The epidemiology of human malaria as an explanation of its distribution, including some implications for its control. Wernsdorfer WH, McGregor I, eds. Principles and Practice of Malariology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 913–998.
  12. Antonio-Nkondjio C, Awono-Ambene P, Toto JC, Meunier JY, Zebaze-Kemleu S, Nyambam R, Wondji CS, Tchuinkam T, Fontenille D, 2002. High malaria transmission intensity in a village close to Yaounde, the capital city of Cameroon. J Med Entomol 39 : 350–355. [Google Scholar]
  13. Awolola TS, Okwa O, Hunt RH, Ogunrinade AF, Coetzee M, 2002. Dynamics of the malaria-vector populations in coastal Lagos, south-western Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 : 75–82. [Google Scholar]
  14. Bockarie MJ, Service MW, Barnish G, Maude GH, Greenwood BM, 1994. Malaria in a rural area of Sierra Leone. III. Vector ecology and disease transmission. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 88 : 251–262. [Google Scholar]
  15. Boudin C, Lyannaz J, Bosseno MF, Carnevale P, Ambroise-Thomas P, 1991. Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum in a rice field and a savanna area in Burkina Faso: seasonal fluctuations of gametocytemia and malarial infectivity. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 85 : 377–385. [Google Scholar]
  16. Coetzee M, Craig MH, le Sueur D, 2000. Mapping the distribution of members of the Anopheles gambiae complex in Africa and adjacent islands. Parasitol Today 16 : 74–77. [Google Scholar]
  17. Gillies MT, De Meillon B, 1968. The Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Ethiopian Zoogeographical Region). Johannesburg, South Africa: South African Insitute of Medical Research, Publication No. 54.
  18. Lindsay SW, Parson L, Thomas CJ, 1998. Mapping the ranges and relative abundance of the two principal African malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis, using climate data. Proc R Soc London B Biol Sci 265 : 847–854. [Google Scholar]
  19. Omumbo JA, Ouma J, Rapuoda B, Craig MH, le Sueur D, Snow RW, 1997. Mapping malaria transmission intensity using geographical information systems (GIS); an example from Kenya. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92 : 7–21. [Google Scholar]
  20. Petrarca V, Beier JC, Onyango F, Koros J, Asiago C, Koech DK, Roberts CR, 1991. Species composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae) at two sites in western Kenya. J Med Entomol 28 : 307–313. [Google Scholar]
  21. Shililu JI, Maier WA, Seitz HM, Orago AS, 1998. Seasonal density, sporozoite rates and entomological inoculation rates of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus in a high-altitude sugar cane growing zone in Western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health 3 : 706–710. [Google Scholar]
  22. Symes CB, 1930. Anophelines in Kenya. Kenya East Afr Med J 7 : 2. [Google Scholar]
  23. White GB, 1974. Anopheles gambiae Complex and disease transmission in Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 68 : 278–298. [Google Scholar]
  24. Berti J, Zimmerman R, Amarista J, 1993. Adult abundance, biting behavior and parity of Anopheles aquasalis Curry 1932 in two malarious areas of Sucre State, Venezuela. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 88 : 363–369. [Google Scholar]
  25. Branquinho MS, Araujo MS, Natal D, Marrelli MT, Rocha RM, Taveira FA, Kloetzel JK, 1996. Anopheles oswaldoi, a potential malaria vector in Acre, Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 : 233. [Google Scholar]
  26. Carme B, Venturin C, 1999. Malaria in the Americas. Med Trop (Mars) 59 : 298–302. [Google Scholar]
  27. Elliott R, 1968. Studies on man-vector contact in some malarious areas in Colombia. Bull World Health Organ 38 : 239–253. [Google Scholar]
  28. Fajardo P, Alzate A, 1987. Anopheles nuneztovari como vector de malaria en el Bajo Calima, Buenaventura. Colombia Med 18 : 14–18. [Google Scholar]
  29. Forattini OP, Kakitani I, Santos RL, Ueno HM, Kobayashi KM, 1999. Role of Anopheles (Kerteszia) bellator as malaria vector in southeastern Brazil (Diptera:Culicidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 94 : 715–718. [Google Scholar]
  30. Gabaldon A, 1972. Difficulties confronting malaria eradication. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21 : 634–639. [Google Scholar]
  31. Gabaldon A, 1981. Anopheles nuneztovari: importante vector y agente de malaria refractaria en Venezuela. Bol Dir Malariol Saneamiento Ambiental 21 : 28–38. [Google Scholar]
  32. Hackett LW, 1945. The malaria of the Andean region of South America. Rev Inst Salubridad Enfermedades Trop 6 : 239–252. [Google Scholar]
  33. Hayes JG, Calderon G, Falcon R, Zambrano V, 1987. Newly incriminated vectors of human malaria parasites in Junin Department, Peru. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 3 : 418–422. [Google Scholar]
  34. Hudson JE, 1984. Anopheles darlingi Root in the Suriname rain forest. Bull Entomol Res 74 : 129–142. [Google Scholar]
  35. Laubach HE, Validum L, Bonilla JA, Agar A, Cummings R, Mitchell C, Cuadrado RR, Palmer CJ, 2001. Identification of Anopheles aquasalis as a possible vector of malaria in Guyana, South America. West Ind Med J 50 : 319–321. [Google Scholar]
  36. Lounibos LP, Conn JE, 2000. Malaria vector heterogeneity in South America. Am Entomol 46 : 238–249. [Google Scholar]
  37. Lounibos LP, Conn JE, 1991. Fecundity, parity and adult feeding relationships among Nyssorhynchus malaria vectors from Venezuela. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 86 : 57–66. [Google Scholar]
  38. Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, Heyden R, 1986. Alguns aspectos da ecologia dos mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) de uma area de planicie (Granjas Calabria), em Jacarepagua Rio de Janeiro. IV. Preferencias alimentares quanto ao hospedeiro e frequencia domiciliar. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 81 : 15–27. [Google Scholar]
  39. Oliveira-Pereira YN, Rebelo JM, 2000. Anopheles species in the municipality of Pinheiro (Maranhao), endemic area of malaria. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 33 : 443–450. [Google Scholar]
  40. Panday RS, 1977. Anopheles nuneztovari and malaria transmission in Surinam. Mosq News 37 : 728–737. [Google Scholar]
  41. Rejmankova E, Roberts DR, Harbach RE, Pecor J, Peyton EL, Manguin S, Krieg R, Polanco J, Legters LJ, 1993. Environmental and regional determinants of Anopheles (Diptera:Culicidae) larval distribution in Belize, Central America. Environ Entomol 22 : 978–992. [Google Scholar]
  42. Ribeiro H, Ramos HC, Pires CA, 1990. Sobre os vectores de malaria em Sao Tome e Principe: Garcia de Orta. Ser Zool 15 : 135–152. [Google Scholar]
  43. Roberts DR, Chan O, Pecor J, Rejmankova E, Manguin S, Polanco J, Legters LJ, 1993. Preliminary observations on the changing roles of malaria vectors in Southern Belize. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9 : 456–459. [Google Scholar]
  44. Rosa-Freitas MG, Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, de Carvalho-Pinto CJ, Flores-Mendoza C, Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento T, 1998. Anopheline species complexes in Brazil. Current knowledge of those related to malaria transmission. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 93 : 651–655. [Google Scholar]
  45. Rozendaal JA, 1987. Observations on the biology and behaviour of anophelines in the Suriname rainforest with special reference to Anopheles darlingi Root. Cah ORSTOM Ser Entomol Med Parasitol 25 : 33–43. [Google Scholar]
  46. Rubio Y, 1991. Biology of Anopheles nuneztovari and Its Role in Malaria Transmission. Final Report. MVR-VE-1-87-81. Washington, DC: National Academy of Science.
  47. Rubio-Palis Y, Curtis CF, 1992. Biting and resting behaviour of anophelines in western Venezuela and implications for control of malaria transmission. Med Vet Entomol 6 : 325–334. [Google Scholar]
  48. Rubio-Palis Y, Zimmerman RH, 1997. Ecoregional classification of malaria vectors in the Neotropics. J Med Entomol 34 : 499–510. [Google Scholar]
  49. Rubio-Palis Y, 1994. Variation of the vectorial capacity of some anophelines in western Venezuela. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 : 420–424. [Google Scholar]
  50. Scorza JV, Tallaferra E, Rubiano H, 1976. Comportamiento y susceptibilidad de Anopheles nuneztovari Gabaldon, 1940 a la infeccion con Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Bol Direc Malariol San Amb 16 : 129–136. [Google Scholar]
  51. Tadei WP, Thatcher BD, Santos JMM, Scarpassa VM, Rodrigues IB, Rafael MS, 1998. Ecologic observations on anopheline vectors of malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 325–335. [Google Scholar]
  52. Tadei WP, Thatchet BD, 2000. Malaria vectors in the Brazilian Amazon: Anopheles of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 42 : 87–94. [Google Scholar]
  53. Zimmerman RH, 1992. Ecology of malaria vectors in the Americas and future direction. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 87 : 371–383. [Google Scholar]
  54. Abdul-Hab JK, 1958. The seasonal occurrence of Anopheles superpictus Grassi and A. sacharovi Favre in Suleimaniya Liwa, north Iraq. Bull Endemic Dis (Baghdad) 2 : 152–165. [Google Scholar]
  55. Amr Z, Al-Khalili Y, Arbaji A, 1997. Larval mosquitoes collected from northern Jordan and the Jordan Valley. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 13 : 375–378. [Google Scholar]
  56. De Zulueta J, Mur DA, 1972. Malaria eradication in the Near East. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 66 : 679–696. [Google Scholar]
  57. El Said S, Beier JC, Kenawy MA, Morsy ZS, Merdan AI, 1986. Anopheles population dynamics in two malaria endemic villages in Faiyum Governorate, Egypt. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2 : 158–163. [Google Scholar]
  58. Eshgy N, Motabar M, Javadian E, Manoutcheri AV, 1976. Biological features of Anopheles fluviatilis and its role in the transmission of malaria in Iran. Trop Geogr Med 28 : 41–44. [Google Scholar]
  59. Eshgy N, 1977. Anopheles multicolor Cambouliu, and its role in the transmission of malaria in Iran. J Entomol Soc Iran 4 : 87–88. [Google Scholar]
  60. Halawani A, Shawarby AA, 1957. Malaria in Egypt. J Egypt Med Assoc 40 : 753–792. [Google Scholar]
  61. Kasap M, 1986. Seasonal variation in populations of Anopheles maculipennis, Anopheles claviger and Culex pipiens in Turkey. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2 : 478–481. [Google Scholar]
  62. Lumsden W, Yofe J, 1950. Anophelism and malaria in Trans Jordan and in the neighboring parts of Palestine and Syria. Leeson H, Lumsden W, Macan T, Yofe J, eds. Anopheles and Malaria in the Near East. London: Lewis and Co. Ltd., 9–108.
  63. Manouchehri AV, Javadian E, Eshighy N, Motabar M, 1976. Ecology of Anopheles stephensi Liston in southern Iran. Trop Geogr Med 28 : 228–232. [Google Scholar]
  64. Manouchehri AV, Zaim M, Emadi AM, 1992. A review of malaria in Iran, 1975–1990. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 8 : 381–385. [Google Scholar]
  65. Margalit J, Tahori AS, 1974. An annotated list of mosquitoes in Israel. Isr J Entomol 9 : 77–91. [Google Scholar]
  66. Postiglione M, Bruno Smiragliam C, Lavagnino A, Gokberk C, Ramsdale C, 1970. A preliminary note on the occurrence in Turkey of the subalpinus form of the A. maculipennis complex. Riv Parassitol 31 : 155–158. [Google Scholar]
  67. Pringle G, 1954. The identification of the adult anopheline mosquitoes of Iraq and neighboring territories. Bull Endemic Dis (Baghdad) 1 : 53–76. [Google Scholar]
  68. Zaim M, Ershadi MR, Manouchehri AV, Hamdi MR, 1986. The use of CDC light traps and other procedures for sampling malaria vectors in southern Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2 : 511–515. [Google Scholar]
  69. Zaim M, Zahirnia AH, Manouchehri AV, 1993. Survival rates of Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles pulcherrimus in sprayed and unsprayed villages in Ghassreghand district, Baluchistan, Iran, 1991. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9 : 421–425. [Google Scholar]
  70. Zaim M, Manouchehri AV, Motabar M, Mowlaii G, Kayedi MH, Pakdad P, Nazari M, 1992. Ecology of Anopheles pulcherrimus in Baluchistan, Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 8 : 293–296. [Google Scholar]
  71. Zimmerman JH, Hanafi HA, Abbassy MM, 1985. Host-feeding patterns of Culex mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) on farms in Gharbiya Governorate. Egypt J Med Entomol 22 : 82–87. [Google Scholar]
  72. Amerasinghe FP, Amerasinghe PH, Peiris JS, Wirtz RA, 1991. Anopheline ecology and malaria infection during the irrigation development of an area of the Mahaweli Project, Sri Lanka. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45 : 226–236. [Google Scholar]
  73. Asinas CY, 1992. Current status of malaria and control activities in the Philippines. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 23 : 55–59. [Google Scholar]
  74. Baimai V, Kijchalao U, Sawadwongporn P, Green CA, 1988. Geographic distribution and biting behaviour of four species of the Anopheles dirus complex (Diptera:Culicidae) in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 19 : 151–161. [Google Scholar]
  75. Cabrera BD, Arambulo PV III, 1977. Malaria in the Republic of the Philippines. A review. Acta Trop 34 : 265–279. [Google Scholar]
  76. Lim ES, 1992. Current status of malaria in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 23 : 43–49. [Google Scholar]
  77. Rahman WA, Che’Rus A, Ahmad AH, 1997. Malaria and Anopheles mosquitoes in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28 : 599–605. [Google Scholar]
  78. Ratanatham S, Upatham ES, Prasittisuk C, Rojansunan W, Theerasilp N, Tremongkul A, Viyanant V, 1988. Bionomics of Anopheles minimus and its role in malaria transmission in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 19 : 283–289. [Google Scholar]
  79. Torres EP, Salazar NP, Belizario VY, Saul A, 1997. Vector abundance and behaviour in an area of low malaria endemicity in Bataan, the Philippines. Acta Trop 63 : 209–220. [Google Scholar]
  80. Chen B, Harbach RE, Butlin RK, 2002. Molecular and morphological studies on the Anopheles minimus group of mosquitoes in southern China: taxonomic review, distribution and malaria vector status. Med Vet Entomol 16 : 253–265. [Google Scholar]
  81. Feng L-C, 1935. The present status of the knowledge of the mosquitoes of China and their relation to human diseases. Chin Med J 49 : 1183–1208. [Google Scholar]
  82. Feng L-C, 1937. The anopheline mosquitoes and the epidemiology of malaria in China. Chin Med J 51 : 1005–1020. [Google Scholar]
  83. Lien JC, 1991. Anopheline mosquitoes and malaria parasites in Taiwan. Gaoxiong Yi Xue Ke Xue Za Zhi 7 : 207–223. [Google Scholar]
  84. Liu C, 1990. Comparative studies on the role of Anopheles anthropophagus and An. sinensis in malaria transmission in China. Chung Kuo Chi Sheng Chung Hsueh Yu Chi Sheng Chung Ping Tsa Chih 11 : 360–363. [Google Scholar]
  85. Wu KC, Chen WJ, Wang ZG, Cai XZ, Deng D, Hu LK, Liu ZY, Zhu WG, Guan DH, Jiang WK, 1993. Studies on distribution and behavior of Anopheles minimus and its current role in malaria transmission in Hainan Province at present. Chung Kuo Chi Sheng Chung Hsueh Yu Chi Sheng Chung Ping Tsa Chih 11 : 120–123. [Google Scholar]
  86. Zheng KS, 1989. To explore the principal vector of malaria by using vectorial capacity. Chung Kuo Chi Sheng Chung Hsueh Yu Chi Sheng Chung Ping Tsa Chih 10 : 162–163. [Google Scholar]
  87. Gunasekaran KP, Sahu SS, Parida SK, Sadanandane C, Jambulingam P, Das PK, 1989. Anopheline fauna of Koraput District, Orissa State with particular reference to transmission of malaria. Indian J Med Res 89 : 340–343. [Google Scholar]
  88. Nagpal BN, Sharma VP, 1983. Mosquitoes of coastal Orissa. Indian J Malariol 20 : 141–143. [Google Scholar]
  89. Sharma VP, 1999. Current scenario of malaria in India. Parassitologia 41 : 349–353. [Google Scholar]
  90. Shrestha SL, Pradhan S, Shrestha PB, Shrestha JD, Rajbhamdari Y, Shrestha GL, Swar TB, Nushin MK, Reisen WK, 1988. Observations on anopheline and malaria and malaria ecology in the far western region of Nepal, 1986. Bull Soc Vector Ecol 13 : 332–342. [Google Scholar]
  91. Afifi SE, Spencer M, Hudson PB, Tavil NW, 1980. Biting prevalence and malaria transmission patterns in the Anopheles punctulatus complex (Diptera:Culicidae) in Papua New Guinea. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 58 : 1–17. [Google Scholar]
  92. Bryan JH, Foley DH, Sutherst RW, 1996. Malaria transmission and climate change in Australia. Med J Aust 164 : 345–347. [Google Scholar]
  93. Cooper RD, Frances SP, Sweeney AW, 1995. Distribution of members of the Anopheles farauti complex in the Northern Territory of Australia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 11 : 66–71. [Google Scholar]
  94. Russell RC, 1987. Seasonal abundance, longevity and population age composition of potential malaria vectors in northern and southern Australia. Aust J Zool 35 : 289–306. [Google Scholar]
  95. Sweeney AW, Cooper RD, Frances SP, 1990. Distribution of the sibling species of Anopheles farauti in the Cape York Peninsula, Northern Queensland, Australia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6 : 425–429. [Google Scholar]
  96. Adamovic Z, 1978. Anopheline mosquito species (Diptera, Culicidae) in west Backa, Yugoslavia. Acta Vet 28 : 243–249. [Google Scholar]
  97. Hackett LW, Missiroli A, 1935. The varieties of An. maculipennis and their relation to the distribution of malaria in Europe. Riv Malariol 14 : 45–109. [Google Scholar]
  98. Jaenson TGT, Ameneshewa B, 1991. Perhibernation diet and reproductive condition of female Anopheles messeae in Sweden. Med Vet Entomol 5 : 243–252. [Google Scholar]
  99. Jaenson TGT, Lokki J, Saura A, 1986. Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) and malaria in northern Europe, with special reference to Sweden. J Med Entomol 9 : 305–311. [Google Scholar]
  100. Jetten TH, Takken W, 1994. Anophelism without Malaria in Europe; A Review of the Ecology and Distribution of the Genus Anopheles in Europe. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Agricultural University. Wageningen University Papers, 94–95.
  101. Katrin GK, Campbell-Lendrum DH, Davies CE, 2002. A continental risk map for malaria mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vectors in Europe. J Med Entomol 39 : 621–630. [Google Scholar]
  102. Romi R, Severini C, Pierdominici G, Marchi A, Erbi G, Mantega V, Pinna G, Lavagnino A, Vitale F, 1994. Residual anophelism in Italy: distribution in 4 southern regions. Ann Ist Super Sanita 30 : 237–242. [Google Scholar]
  103. Romi R, 1999. Anopheles labranchiae, an important malaria vector in Italy, and other potential malaria vectors in southern Europe. Eur Mosq Bull 4 : 8–10. [Google Scholar]
  104. Dorsie RF Jr., Word RA, 1981. Identification and geographical distribution of the mosquitoes of North America, North of Mexico. American Mosquito Control Association, Fresno, CA.
  105. ESRI, 1998. ArcView GIS Version 3.2 for Windows. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute.
  106. LP DAACb, 1999. Global Land Cover Characteristics 1km Database. These data are distributed by the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center located at the U.S. Geological Survey’s EROS Data Center http://edcdaac.usgs.gov.
  107. LP DAACa, 1999. HYDRO1k Elevation Derivative Database. These data are distributed by the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center located at the U.S. Geological Survey’s EROS Data Center http://edcdaac.usgs.gov.
  108. IAMAT, 2002. World Malaria Risk Chart. International Association for Medical Assistance to Travellers. Lewiston, NY. Available at http://www.iamat.org.
  109. IPCC, 1999. International Panel on Climate Change Data Distribution Data Centre CD-ROM, April. Data are distributed at http://ipcc-ddc.cru.uea.ac.uk.
  110. CIESIN, 2000. Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 2. Palisades, NY: Center for International Earth Science Information Network, Columbia University. Available at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/plue/gpw.
  111. Moshkovsky SD, Rashina MG, 1951. Epidemiology and medical parasitology for entomologists. Moscow. Unknown publisher. Cited in Detinova, TS, 1962. Age-Grouping Methods in Diptera of Medical Importance with Special Reference to Some Vectors of Malaria. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  112. Bray RS, Gill GS, Killick-Kendrick R, 1984. Current and Possible Future Technique for the Identification of Bloodmeals of Vector Haematophagous Arthropods. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/MAL/84.1013.
  113. Davis GE, Phillip CB, 1931. The identification of the blood meal in west African mosquitoes by means of the precipitin test: a preliminary report. Am J Hyg 14 : 130–141. [Google Scholar]
  114. Garrett-Jones C, 1964. The human blood index of malaria vectors in relation to epidemiological assessment. Bull World Health Organ 30 : 241–261. [Google Scholar]
  115. Garrett-Jones C, Shidrawi GR, 1969. Malaria vectorial capacity of a population of Anopheles gambiae, an exercise in epidemiological entomology. Bull World Health Organ 40 : 531–545. [Google Scholar]
  116. Tempelis CH, Lofy MF, 1963. A modified precipitin method for identification of mosquito blood meals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 12 : 825–831. [Google Scholar]
  117. Weyer F, 1934. Ueber die Technik der Bestimmung des von Steckmucken gesogenen Blutes nach der Praecipitinmethode. Entomol Beih Berlin 1 : 76–84. [Google Scholar]
  118. Beier JC, Perkins PV, Wirtz RA, Koros J, Diggs D, Gargan TP II, Koech D, 1988. Bloodmeal identification by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), tested on Anopheles (Diptera:Culicidae) in Kenya. J Med Entomol 25 : 9–16. [Google Scholar]
  119. Savage HM, Duncan JF, Roberts DR, Sholdt LL, 1991. A dip-stick ELISA for rapid detection of human detection of human blood meals in mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 : 16–23. [Google Scholar]
  120. Crans WJ, 1969. An agar gel diffusion method for the identification of mosquito bloodmeals. Mosq News 29 : 563–566. [Google Scholar]
  121. Gillies MT, 1961. Studies on the dispersion and survival of Anopheles gambiae Giles in East Africa by means of marking and release experiments. Bull Entomol Res 52 : 99–127. [Google Scholar]
  122. Detinova TS, Beklemishev WN, Bertram DS, 1963. Methodes a Appliquer pour Classer le Groupes d’Age les Dipteres Presentant une Importance Medicale. Serie de Monographies 47. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  123. Breeland S, 1972. Studies on the ecology of Anopheles albimanus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21 : 751–754. [Google Scholar]
  124. Bruce-Chwatt LJ, Gockel CW, 1960. A study of the blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes through precipitin tests. Bull World Health Organ 22 : 685–720. [Google Scholar]
  125. Garrett-Jones C, Boreham PFL, Pant CP, 1980. Feeding habits of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) in 1971–78, with reference to the human blood index: a review. Bull Entomol Res 70 : 165–185. [Google Scholar]
  126. Hill RB, 1934. Feeding habits of some Venezuelan Anopheles. Am J Trop Med 14 : 425–429. [Google Scholar]
  127. Loyola EG, Gonzalez-Ceron L, Rodriguez MH, Arredondo-Jimenez JI, Bennet S, Down DN, 1993. Anopheles albimanus (Diptera:Culicidae) host selection patterns in three ecological areas of the coastal plains of Chiapas, Southern Mexico. J Med Entomol 30 : 518–523. [Google Scholar]
  128. Mekuria Y, Granados R, Tidwell MA, Williams DC, Wirtz RA, Roberts DR, 1991. Malaria transmission potential by Anopheles mosquitoes of Dajabon, Dominican Republic. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 : 456–461. [Google Scholar]
  129. WHO/Lister Institute, 1960. A study of the blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitos through precipitin tests. Results of collaborative work for the period 1955–59 and their application to malaria eradication programmes. Bull World Health Organ 22 : 685–720. [Google Scholar]
  130. Huang QL, Zhou JX, Zhang MC, Xie JX, 1992. Observation on malaria transmission intensity at a stone-pit of the mountain area in Baoan County, Guangdong Province. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 10 : 124–127. [Google Scholar]
  131. Deane LM, Vernin SC, Damasceno RG, 1949. Avaliacao das preferencias alimentares das femeas de Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles aquasalis em Belem, por meio de provas de precipitina. Rev Serv Esp Saude Publica 2 : 793–808. [Google Scholar]
  132. Flores-Mendoza C, Cunha RA, Rocha DS, Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, 1996. Identification of food sources of Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera:Culicidae) by precipitin test in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 30 : 129–134. [Google Scholar]
  133. Bogh C, Clarke SE, Pinder M, Sanyang F, Lindsay SW, 2001. Effect of passive zooprophylaxis on malaria transmission in the Gambia. J Med Entomol 38 : 822–828. [Google Scholar]
  134. Charlwood JD, Qassim M, Elnsur EI, Donnelly M, Petrarca V, Billingsley PF, Pinto J, Smith T, 2001. The impact of indoor spraying with malathion on malaria in refugee camps in eastern Sudan. Acta Trop 80 : 1–8. [Google Scholar]
  135. Diatta M, Spiegel A, Lochouarn L, Fontenille D, 1998. Similar feeding preferences of Anopheles gambiae and A. arabiensis in Senegal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 : 270–272. [Google Scholar]
  136. Diallo S, Konate L, Faye O, Ndir O, Faye M, Gueye A, Diouf M, 1998. Malaria in southern sanitary district of Dakar (Senegal). Bull Soc Pathol Exot 91 : 259–263. [Google Scholar]
  137. Fontenille D, Lochouarn L, Diatta M, Sokhna C, Dia I, Diagne N, Lemasson JJ, Ba K, Tall A, Rogier C, Trape JF, 1997. Four years’ entomological study of the transmission of seasonal malaria in Senegal and the bionomics of Anopheles gambiae and A. arabiensis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 : 647–652. [Google Scholar]
  138. Githeko AK, Service MW, Mbogo CM, Atieli FK, Juma FO, 1994. Origin of blood meals in indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in western Kenya. Acta Trop 58 : 307–316. [Google Scholar]
  139. Githeko AK, Adungo NI, Karanja DM, Hawley WA, Vulule JM, Seroney IK, Ofulla AVO, Atieli FK, Ondijo SO, Genga IO, Odada PK, Situbi PA, Oloo JA, 1996. Some observations on the biting behavior of Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus and their implication for malaria control. Exp Parasitol 82 : 306–315. [Google Scholar]
  140. Habtewold T, Walker AR, Curtis CF, Osir EO, Thapa N, 2001. The feeding behavior and Plasmodium infection of Anopheles mosquitoes in southern Ethiopia in relation to use of insecticide-treated livestock for malaria control. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 : 584–586. [Google Scholar]
  141. Haids M, Lulu M, Mekonnen Y, Asefaw T, 1997. Host choices by indoor-resting Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 : 376–378. [Google Scholar]
  142. Highton RB, Bryan JH, Boreham PFL, Chandler JA, 1979. Studies on the sibling species Anopheles gambiae Giles and Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Kisumu area, Kenya. Bull Entomol Res 69 : 43–53. [Google Scholar]
  143. Ijumba JN, Mosha FW, Lindsay SW, 2002. Malaria transmission risk variations derived from different agricultural practices in an irrigated area of northern Tanzania. Med Vet Entomol 16 : 28–38. [Google Scholar]
  144. Ijumba JN, Mwangi RW, Beier JC, 1990. Malaria transmission potential of Anopheles mosquitoes in the Mwea-Tebere irrigation scheme, Kenya. Med Vet Entomol 4 : 425–432. [Google Scholar]
  145. Joshi GP, Service MW, Pradhan GD, 1975. A survey of species A and B of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex in the Kisumu area of Kenya prior to insecticidal spraying with OMS-43 (fenitrothion). Ann Trop Med Parasitol 69 : 91–104. [Google Scholar]
  146. Lemasson JJ, Fontenille D, Lochouarn L, Dia I, Simard F, Ba K, Diop A, Diatta M, Molez JF, 1997. Comparison of behavior and vector efficiency of Anopheles gambiae and An.arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Barkedji, a Sahelian area of Senegal. J Med Entomol 34 : 396–403. [Google Scholar]
  147. McCall PJ, Mosha FW, Njunwa KJ, Sherlock K, 2001. Evidence for memorized site-fidelity in Anopheles arabiensis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 : 587–590. [Google Scholar]
  148. Service MW, Joshi GP, Pradhan GD, 1978. A survey of Anopheles gambiae (species A) and Anopheles arabiensis (species B) of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex in the Kisumu area of Kenya following insecticidal spraying with OMS-43 (fenitrothion). Ann Trop Med Parasitol 72 : 377–386. [Google Scholar]
  149. White GB, Magayuka SA, Boreham PFL, 1972. Comparative studies on sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex (Diptera: Culicidae): bionomics and vectorial activity of species A and species B at Segara, Tanzania. Bull Entomol Res 62 : 295–317. [Google Scholar]
  150. White GB, Rosen P, 1973. Comparative studies on sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex (Dipt., Culicidae). II. Ecology of species A and B in savanna around Kaduna, Nigeria, during transition from wet to dry season. Bull Entomol Res 62 : 613–625. [Google Scholar]
  151. Gaschen H, Raynal J, 1936. Recherches sur les affinites trophiques des anopheles d’Indochine. Premiere note. Ann Inst Pasteur 57 : 311–315. [Google Scholar]
  152. Olivaria J, Hill RB, 1935. Algunos datos sobre las preferencias hematicos de las A. maculipennis. Med Paises Calidos 8 : 169–173. [Google Scholar]
  153. Pittaluga G, et al., 1932. Le paludisme dans les “deltas”. (Etudes sur certaines conditions naturelles et experimentales de l’anophelisme dans le delta de l’Ebre., 1926–1930. Arch Roumaines Pathol Exp Microbiol 5 : 5–11. [Google Scholar]
  154. Swellengrebel NH, de Buck A, 1938. Les races hollandaises de l’Anopheles maculipennis et leurs rapports avec les races italiennes. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 26 : 273–282. [Google Scholar]
  155. Collins RT, Narasimham MV, Dhal KB, Mukherjee BP, 1991. Gel diffusion analysis of Anopheles bloodmeals from 12 malarious study villages of Orissa State, India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 : 595–603. [Google Scholar]
  156. Green R, 1933. Annual Report of the Division of Malaria Research for the Year 1933. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Medical Research FMS Kuala Lumpur.
  157. Green R, 1934. Annual Report of the Division of Malaria Research for the Year 1934. Kualla Lumpur: Institute of Medical Research MS Kuala Lumpur.
  158. Walch EW, 1932. On the relation between the preference for animal or human blood of Netherland-Indian Anopheles and their ability to transmit malaria under natural conditions. Acta Neerland Physiol 2 : 206–210. [Google Scholar]
  159. Abhayawardena TA, 1995. Identification of the source of blood meals of wild caught Anopheles culicifacies and An. subpictus using gel diffusion technique. Proc Sri Lanka Assoc Adv Sci 51 : 54–55. [Google Scholar]
  160. Afridi MK, Singh J, Singh H, 1939. Food preferences of Anopheles in the Delhi urban area. J Mal Inst India 2 : 219–227. [Google Scholar]
  161. Amerasinghe PH, Amerasinghe FP, Konradsen F, Fonseka KT, Wirtz RA, 1999. Malaria vectors in a traditional dry zone village in Sri Lanka. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 : 421–429. [Google Scholar]
  162. Dash AP, 1985. Host selection patterns of five mosquito species of Orissa. J Zool Soc India 37 : 111–116. [Google Scholar]
  163. Dewit I, Coosemans M, Srikrishnaraj K, Wery M, 1994. Population dynamics of anophelines in a malathion treated village in the intermediate zone of Sri Lanka. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 74 : 93–103. [Google Scholar]
  164. Gunasekaran KP, Sadanandane C, Parida SK, Sahu SS, Patra KP, Jambulingam P, 1994. Observations on nocturnal activity and man biting habits of malaria vectors, An. fluviatilis, An. annularis and An. culicifacies in the hill tracts of Koraput District, Orissa. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 25 : 187–195. [Google Scholar]
  165. Joshi H, Vasantha K, Subbarao SK, Sharma VP, 1988. Host feeding patterns of Anopheles culicifacies species A and B. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 4 : 248–251. [Google Scholar]
  166. Mahmood F, MacDonald M, 1985. Ecology of malaria transmission and vectorial capacity of Anopheles culicifacies species A in rural Punjab Pakistan. Pakistan J Med Res 24 : 95–106. [Google Scholar]
  167. Nanda N, Yadav RS, Subbarao SK, Josji H, Sharma VP, 2000. Studies on Anopheles fluviatilis and Anopheles culicifacies sibling species in relation to malaria in forested hilly and deforested riverine ecosystems in northern Orissa, India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 16 : 199–205. [Google Scholar]
  168. Ramachandra Rao T, 1984.. The Anophelines of India. Second edition. New Delhi: Indian Council of Medical Research.
  169. Reisen WK, Boreham PFL, 1979. Host selection patterns of some Pakistan mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28 : 408–421. [Google Scholar]
  170. Reisen WK, Boreham PFL, 1982. Estimates of vectorial capacity for Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi in rural Punjab province, Pakistan. J Med Entomol 19 : 98–103. [Google Scholar]
  171. Roy A, Ansari MA, Sharma VP, 1991. Feeding behaviour patterns of anophelines from Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat states of India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 : 11–15. [Google Scholar]
  172. Russell PF, Rao T, 1942. Observations on the longevity of Anopheles culicifacies Imagines. Am J Trop Med 22 : 517–533. [Google Scholar]
  173. Charlwood JD, Alecrim WA, 1989. Capture-recapture studies with the South American malaria vector Anopheles darlingi, Root. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 83 : 569–576. [Google Scholar]
  174. Chow CY, 1970. Bionomics of malaria vectors in the western Pacific region. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1 : 40–57. [Google Scholar]
  175. Dutta P, Bhattacharyya DR, Khan SA, Sharma CK, Mahanta J, 1996. Feeding patterns of Anopheles dirus, the major vector of forest malaria in north east India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 27 : 378–381. [Google Scholar]
  176. Hii JL, Kan S, Vun YS, Chin KF, Tambakau S, Chan MK, Lye MS, Mak JW, Cochrane AH, 1988. Transmission dynamics and estimates of malaria vectorial capacity for Anopheles balabacensis and An. flavirostris (Diptera: Culicidae) on Banggi island, Sabah, Malaysia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 82 : 91–101. [Google Scholar]
  177. Graves PM, Burkot TR, Saul AJ, Hayes RJ, Carters R, 1990. Estimation of anopheline survival rate, vectorial capacity and mosquito infection probability from malaria vector infection rates in villages near Madang, Papua New Guinea. J Appl Ecol 27 : 134–147. [Google Scholar]
  178. Akiyama J, 1968. Assignment Report, Malaria Eradication Program, West Pakistan, July 1961June 1968. Geneva: World Health Organization. Unpublished report WHO-EM/MAL/65.
  179. Covell G, Harbhagwan J, 1939. Malaria in the Wynaad. South India J Mal Inst India 2 : 341–376. [Google Scholar]
  180. Jaswant S, Jacob VP, 1944. Malaria investigations in north Kanara. J Mal Inst India 5 : 267–303. [Google Scholar]
  181. Nanda N, Joshi H, Subbarao SK, Yadav RS, Shukla RP, Dua VK, Sharma VP, 1996. Anopheles fluviatilis complex: host feeding patterns of species S, T and U. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12 : 147–149. [Google Scholar]
  182. Zahar AR, 1974. Review of the ecology of malaria vectors in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region. Bull World Health Organ 50 : 427–440. [Google Scholar]
  183. Wekesa JW, Lemenager DA, Yuval B, Washino RK, 1992. Observations on the bloodfeeding behavior of Anopheles freeborni and Culex tarsalis in California’s Central Valley. Proc Calif Mosq Vector Control Assoc 60 : 82–84. [Google Scholar]
  184. Wekesa JW, Yuval B, Washino RK, de Vasquez AM, 1997. Blood feeding patterns of Anopheles freeborni and Culex tarsalis (Diptera:Culicidae): effects of habitat and host abundance. Bull Entomol Res 87 : 633–641. [Google Scholar]
  185. Bockarie MJ, Service MW, Barnish G, Toure YT, 1995. Vectorial capacity and entomological inoculation rates of Anopheles gambiae in a high rainfall forested area of southern Sierra Leone. Trop Med Parasitol 46 : 164–171. [Google Scholar]
  186. Chandler JA, Boreham PFL, Highton RB, Hill MN, 1975. A study of the host selection patterns of the mosquitoes of the Kisumu area of Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 69 : 415–425. [Google Scholar]
  187. Duchemin JB, Leong Pock Tsy JM, Rabarison P, Roux J, Coluzzi M, Costantini C, 2001. Zoophily of Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae in Madagascar demonstrated by odour-baited entry traps. Med Vet Entomol 15 : 50–57. [Google Scholar]
  188. Mbogo CN, Kabiru EW, Muiruri SK, Nzovu JM, Ouma JH, Githure JI, Beier JC, 1993. Bloodfeeding behavior of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus in Kilifi District, Kenya. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9 : 225–227. [Google Scholar]
  189. White GB, 1971. Blood feeding habits of mosquitoes in the South Pare District of Tanzania ten years after cessation of a dieldrin residual spraying campaign. East Afr Med J 48 : 120–134. [Google Scholar]
  190. Bryan JH, Petrarca V, Di Deco MA, Coluzzi M, 1987. Adult behaviour of members of the Anopheles gambiae complex in the Gambia with special reference to An. melas and its chromosomal variants. Parassitologia 29 : 221–249. [Google Scholar]
  191. Lindsay SW, Wilkins HA, Zieler HA, Daly RJ, Petrarca V, Byass P, 1991. Ability of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to transmit malaria during the dry and wet seasons in an area of irrigated rice cultivation in The Gambia. J Trop Med Hyg 94 : 313–324. [Google Scholar]
  192. Sousa CA, Pinto J, Almeida AP, do Rosario VE, Charlwood JD, 2001. Dogs as a favored host choice of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) of Sao Tome West Africa. J Med Entomol 38 : 122–125. [Google Scholar]
  193. Cefalu M, Oddo F, Sacca G, 1961. Vita extra-domestica di in Sicilia. Osservazioni in un’ area di sospensione dei trattamenti con DDT. Parassitologia 3 : 23–51. [Google Scholar]
  194. Escalar G, 1933. Applicazione sperimentale della zooprofilassi in Ardea. Riv Malariol 12 : 373–380. [Google Scholar]
  195. Romi R, Pierdominici G, Severini C, Tamburro A, Cocchi M, Menichetti D, Pili E, Marchi A, 1997. Status of malaria vectors in Italy. J Med Entomol 34 : 263–271. [Google Scholar]
  196. Davidson G, Ganapathipillai A, 1956. Observations on the bionomics of the adults of some Malayan anopheline mosquitoes. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 50 : 137–146. [Google Scholar]
  197. Laurel AG, 1934. Feeding activities of some Philippine Anopheles. Rev Filipina Med Farm 25 : 286–297. [Google Scholar]
  198. Ramsay GC, Chandra SN, Lamprell BA, 1936. A record of an investigation to determine the androphilic indices of certain anopheline mosquitoes collected on the estates in Assam and Northern Bengal. Rec Mal Surv India 6 : 49–61. [Google Scholar]
  199. Barber MA, Rice JB, 1935. Malaria studies in Greece: The malaria infection rate in nature and in the laboratory of certain species of Anopheles of East Macedonia. Ann Trop Med 29 : 329–348. [Google Scholar]
  200. Erlikh VD, 1983. Feeding preferences of Anopheles mosquitoes of the “maculipennis” complex - an index of the effectiveness of their control. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 52 : 53–58. [Google Scholar]
  201. Kostich DJ, 1936. The extent to which zoophilism can be taken into consideration as regards anopheline mosquitoes of S. Serbia. Glasn Tzentr Khig Zavoda 19 : 153–160. [Google Scholar]
  202. Piccininni F, 1933. Relazione sulla campagna antimalarica in Provincia di Milano nell’Anno 1931. Riv Malariol 11 : 839–876. [Google Scholar]
  203. Prendel AR, Somov AA, 1938. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 7 : 860–872. [Google Scholar]
  204. Swellengrebel NH, De Buck A, Schoute E, 1929. On the food of adult Anopheles maculipennis in malarious and non-malarious regions. Proc Acad Sci Amst 32 : 772–779. [Google Scholar]
  205. Gaschen H, Raynal J, 1937. Recherches sur les affinites trophiques des Anopheles d’Indochin. Deuxieme note. Ann Inst Pasteur 59 : 57–62. [Google Scholar]
  206. Morishita K, Katagai T, 1933. Examination of blood in the stomachs of Anopheles in Formosa. Bobuts Zasshi Tokyo 45 : 90–98. [Google Scholar]
  207. Rattanarithikul R, Linthicum KJ, Konishi E, 1996. Seasonal abundance and parity rates of Anopheles species in southern Thailand. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12 : 75–83. [Google Scholar]
  208. Raynal J, Gaschen H, 1935. Methode des precipitines appliquee aux anopheles. Resultats en Indochine-Nord. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 28 : 937–943. [Google Scholar]
  209. Beier JC, Zimmerman JH, Kenawy MA, el Said S, Abbassy MM, 1987. Host-feeding patterns of the mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae) in two Faiyum Governorate villages, Egypt. J Med Entomol 24 : 28–34. [Google Scholar]
  210. Kenawy M, Zimmerman JH, Beier JC, el Said S, Abbassy MM, 1986. Host-feeding patterns of Anopheles sergentii and An. multicolor (Diptera: Culicidae) in Siwa and El Gara oases, Egypt. J Med Entomol 23 : 576–577. [Google Scholar]
  211. Kenawy M.A, Beier JC, Zimmerman JH, el Said S, Abbassy MM, 1987. Host-feeding patterns of the mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae) in Aswan Governorate, Egypt. J Med Entomol 24 : 35–39. [Google Scholar]
  212. Kenawy MA, Beier JC, Asiago CM, el Said S, 1990. Factors affecting the human-feeding behavior of anopheline mosquitoes in Egyptian oases. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6 : 446–451. [Google Scholar]
  213. Elliott R, 1972. The influence of vector behavior on malaria transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21 : 755–763. [Google Scholar]
  214. Rubio-Palis Y, Curtis CF, Gonzales C, Wirtz RA, 1994. Host choice of anopheline mosquitoes in a malaria endemic area of western Venezuela. Med Vet Entomol 8 : 275–280. [Google Scholar]
  215. Barber MA, Rice JB, 1937. A survey of malaria in Egypt. Am J Trop Med 17 : 413–436. [Google Scholar]
  216. Carrara GC, Petrarca V, Niang M., Coluzzi M, 1990. Anopheles pharoensis and transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in the Senegal River delta, West Africa. Med Vet Entomol 4 : 421–424. [Google Scholar]
  217. Gordon SW, Tammariello RF, Linthicum KJ, Wirtz RA, Digoutte JP, 1991. Feeding patterns of mosquitoes collected in the Senegal River basin. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 : 424–432. [Google Scholar]
  218. Gordon SW, Tammariello RF, Linthicum KJ, Dohm DJ, Digoutte JP, Calvo-Wilson MA, 1992. Arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes collected during 1988 in the Senegal River basin. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47 : 742–748. [Google Scholar]
  219. Kenawy MA, 1991. Development and survival of Anopheles pharoensis and An. multicolor from Faiyum, Egypt. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 : 551–555. [Google Scholar]
  220. Zahar AR, Shawarby A, Zaghloul T, Ezz el Arab MA, Kamel Z, Nasr NT, 1966. Epidemiological Evaluation of DDT Spraying with Studies on Behaviour of Anopheles pharoensis Theobald in Egypt, United Arab Republic. Geneva: World Health Organization, WHO/Mal/66.566. 35p.
  221. Davis NC, Shannon RC, 1928. The blood feeding habits of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in Northern Argentina. Am J Trop Med 8 : 443–448. [Google Scholar]
  222. Fernandez-Salas I., Roberts DR, Rodriguez MH, Rodriguez M del C, Wirtz RA, 1994. Bionomics of adult Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Diptera:Culicidae) in the Tapachula Foothills area of southern Mexico. J Med Entomol 31 : 663–670. [Google Scholar]
  223. Vargas L, 1938. Observaciones sobre la preferencia alimenticia sanguinea de A. pseudopunctipennis en Temixco, Morelas. Ann Inst Biol Mex 9 : 201–208. [Google Scholar]
  224. Reisen WK, Aslamkhan M, 1979. A release-recapture experiment with the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, with observations on dispersal, survivorship, population size, gonotrophic rhythm and mating behaviour. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 73 : 251–270. [Google Scholar]
  225. Rishikesh N, 1972. Anopheles pulcherrimus Theobald (1902) as a possible vector of malaria in Iraq. Bull Endemic Dis (Baghdad) 13 : 7–12. [Google Scholar]
  226. Ward RA, 1972. Medical Entomology, Diptera, Culicidae. Health and Disease in Rural Afghanistan. Buck AA, Anderson RI, Kawata K, Word RA, Sasaki TT, Amin FM, eds. Baltimore: York Press.
  227. Zahar AR, 1971. Report on a Visit to Afghanistan, July 28August 31, 1970. Geneva: World Health Organization. Unpublished report WHO-EM/MAL/102.
  228. Apperson CS, Lanzaro GC, 1991. Comparison of host-feeding patterns between Anopheles quadrimaculatus sibling species A and B. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 : 507–508. [Google Scholar]
  229. Jensen T, Cockburn AF, Kaiser PE, Barnard DR, 1996. Human blood-feeding rates among sympatric sibling species of Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes in northern Florida. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54 : 523–525. [Google Scholar]
  230. King WV, Bull CG, 1923. The blood feeding habits of malaria carrying mosquitoes. Am J Hyg 3 : 497–513. [Google Scholar]
  231. Barber MA, 1936. A survey of malaria in Cyprus. Am J Trop Med 16 : 431–445. [Google Scholar]
  232. Boreham PFL, Garrett-Jones C, 1973. Prevalence of mixed bloodmeals and double feeding in a malaria vector (Anopheles sacharovi Favre). Bull World Health Organ 48 : 605–614. [Google Scholar]
  233. Bruce-Chwatt LJ, Garrett-Jones C, Weitz B, 1966. Ten years study (1955–64) of host selection by anopheline mosquitoes. Bull World Health Organ 35 : 405–439. [Google Scholar]
  234. Chinayev PP, 1965. Range and epidemiological importance of the malarial mosquitoes Anopheles maculipennis sacharovi Fv., A. superpictus Gr. And A. pulcherrimus Theob. (Diptera-:Culicidae) in Soviet Central Asia. Entomol Rev 44 : 64–169. [Google Scholar]
  235. Demirhan O, Kasap M, 1995. Bloodfeeding behavior of Anopheles sacharovi in Turkey. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 11 : 11–14. [Google Scholar]
  236. Edrissian GH, Manouchehri AV, Hafizi A, 1985. Application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of human blood index in anopheline mosquitoes collected in Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 1 : 349–352. [Google Scholar]
  237. Hadjinicolaou J, Betzios B, 1972. Biological Studies of Anopheles sacharovi Favr in Greece. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  238. Hadjinicolaou J, Betzios B, 1973. Resurgence of Anopheles sacharovi following malaria eradication. Bull World Health Organ 48 : 699–703. [Google Scholar]
  239. Kligler IJ, Mer G, 1932. Studies on malaria in an uncontrolled hyperendemic malaria X. Behavior of A. elutus in relation to housing and malaria. Riv Malariol 11 : 553–583. [Google Scholar]
  240. Motabar M, Tabibzadeh I., Manouchehri AV, 1975. Malaria and its control in Iran. Trop Geogr Med 27 : 71–78. [Google Scholar]
  241. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Namazi J, Piazak N, 2001. Bionomics of Anopheles sacharovi in Ardebil province, northwestern Iran during a larval control program. Acta Trop 78 : 207–215. [Google Scholar]
  242. Chedecal M. 1938. Contribution a l’etude du comportement trophique des anophelines a Hanoi. Rev Med Franc Extr-Orient 8 : 1007–1025. [Google Scholar]
  243. Lee HI, Lee JS, Shin EH, Lee WJ, Kim YY, Lee KR, 2001. Malaria transmission potential by Anopheles sinensis in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 39 : 185–192. [Google Scholar]
  244. Ree HI, Hwang UW, Lee IY, Kim TE, 2001. Daily survival and human blood index of Anopheles sinensis, the vector species of malaria in Korea. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 17 : 67–72. [Google Scholar]
  245. Toumanoff C, Hu SMK, 1935. Sur le comportement trophique d’Anopheles hyrcanus var sinensis dans le region de Shanghai. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 28 : 832–838. [Google Scholar]
  246. Hati AK, 1997. Urban malaria vector biology. Indian J Med Res 106 : 149–163. [Google Scholar]
  247. Kirnowardoya S, 1985. Entomological investigations of an outbreak of malaria in Chilacap on south coast of central Java, Indonesia during 1985. J Commun Dis 19 : 121–127. [Google Scholar]
  248. Kumari R, Joshi H, Giri A, Sharma VP, 1993. Feeding preferences of Anopheles sundaicus in Car Nicobar island. Indian J Malariol 30 : 201–206. [Google Scholar]
  249. Senior-White RA, 1951. Studies on the bionomics of Anopheles aquasalis Curry Part I. Indian J Malariol 5 : 293–404. [Google Scholar]
  250. Senior-White RA, 1951. Studies on the bionomics of Anopheles aquasalis Curry Part II. Indian J Malariol 5 : 465–512. [Google Scholar]
  251. Van Thiel PH, 1935. Onderzoekingen omtrent den gedrag van Anopheles ten opzichte van mensch en dier, mede in verband met rassenstudie bij Anopheles maculipennis. Geneesk Tydschr Nederl.-Indie 75 : 2101. [Google Scholar]
  252. Frederickson C, 1987. An Estimate of the Malarial Vectorial Capacity for Anopheles albimanus in Rural Southern Chiapas, Mexico. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. Research Progress 1984–1985: RD 26/1.
  253. Mahmood F, 1997. Life-table attributes of Anopheles albimanus (Wiedemann) under controlled laboratory conditions. J Vector Ecol 22 : 103–108. [Google Scholar]
  254. Rodriguez MH, Bown DN, Arredondo-Jimenez JI, Villarreal C, Loyola EG, Frederickson CE, 1992. Gonotrophic cycle and survivorship of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera:Culicidae) in southern Mexico. J Med Entomol 29 : 395–399. [Google Scholar]
  255. Deane LM, 1986. Malaria vectors in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 81 : 5–14. [Google Scholar]
  256. Flores-Mendoza C, Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, 1996. Bionomics of Anopheles aquasalis Curry 1932, in Guarai, State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil - I. Seasonal distribution and parity rates. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 91 : 265–270. [Google Scholar]
  257. Mendis C, Jacobsen JL, Gamage-Mendis A, Bule E, Dgedge M, Thompson R, Cuamba N, Barreto J, Begtrup K, Sinden RE, Høgh B, 2000. Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus are equally important vectors of malaria in Matola coastal suburb of Maputo, southern Mozambique. Med Vet Entomol 14 : 171–180. [Google Scholar]
  258. Hill RB, 1937. The length of life of Anopheles maculipennis var atroparvus. South Med J 30 : 952–953. [Google Scholar]
  259. Leeson HS, 1939. Longevity of Anopheles maculipennis race atroparvus, van Thiel at controlled temperature and humidity after one blood meal. Bull Entomol Res 30 : 295–301. [Google Scholar]
  260. Meller H, 1962. Vergleichende beobachtungen uber die biologie von Anopheles atroparvaus und Anopheles stephensi unter laboraturiumsbedingungen. Zeitsch. Trop Med Par 13 : 80–102. [Google Scholar]
  261. Rosa A, 1936. Sulla durata di vita della varieta di Anopheles maculipennis. Riv Malariol 15 : 399–403. [Google Scholar]
  262. Shute PG, Ungureanu E, 1939. Preliminary Report of the Longevity of the Races of Anopheles maculipennis. League of Nations. Health Organ Mal Com CH/Malaria/273.
  263. Mahmood F, Sakai RK, Akhtar K, 1984. Vector incrimination studies and observations on species A and B of the taxon Anopheles culicifacies in Pakistan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 78 : 607–616. [Google Scholar]
  264. Reisen WK, Mahmood F, Parveen T, 1980. Anopheles culicifacies Giles: a mark-release-recapture experiment with cohorts of known age in Pakistan with implications for malaria epidemiology and genetical control. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 74 : 307–317. [Google Scholar]
  265. Reisen WK, Mahmood F, Azra K, 1981. Anopheles culicifacies Giles: adult ecological parameters measured in rural Punjab Province, Pakistan, using capture-mark-release-recapture and dissection methods, with comparative observations on An. stephensi Liston and An. subpictus Grassi. Res Popul Ecol 23 : 39–60. [Google Scholar]
  266. Charlwood JD, 1986. Survival rate variation of Anopheles farauti (Diptera:Culicidae) between neighboring villages in coastal Papua New Guinea. J Med Entomol 23 : 361–365. [Google Scholar]
  267. Ismail IAH, Notananda V, Schepens J, 1975. Studies on malaria and responses of Anopheles balabacensis balabacensis and Anopheles minimus to DDT residual spraying in Thailand. Part II. Post-spraying observations. Acta Trop 32 : 206–231. [Google Scholar]
  268. Kitthawee S, Edman JD, Upatham ES, 1992. Relationship between female Anopheles dirus (Diptera:Culicidae) body size and parity in a biting population. J Med Entomol 29 : 921–926. [Google Scholar]
  269. Klein TA, Harrison BA, Grove JS, Dixon SV, Andre RG, 1986. Correlation of survival rates of Anopheles dirus A (Diptera-:Culicidae) with different infection densities of Plasmodium cynomolgi. Bull World Health Organ 64 : 901–907. [Google Scholar]
  270. Catangui FP, 1971. Studies on the gonotrophic cycle of Anopheles minimus flavirostris and the application of physiological age grading technique on the same species. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2 : 384–392. [Google Scholar]
  271. McHugh CP, 1989. Ecology of a semi-isolated population of adult Anopheles freeborni: abundance, trophic status, parity, survivorship, gonotrophic cycle length and host selection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41 : 169–176. [Google Scholar]
  272. Takken W, Charlwood JD, Bilingsley PF, Gort G, 1998. Dispersal and survival of Anopheles funestus and A. gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) during the rainy season in southeast Tanzania. Bull Entomol Res 88 : 561–566. [Google Scholar]
  273. Charlwood JD, Smith T, Billingsley PF, Takken W, Lyimo EOK, Meuwissen JHET, 1997. Survival and infection probabilities of anthropophagic anophelines from an area of high prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in humans. Bull Entomol Res 87 : 445–453. [Google Scholar]
  274. Chege GM, Beier JC, 1990. Effect of Plasmodium falciparum on the survival of naturally infected afrotropical Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 27 : 454–458. [Google Scholar]
  275. Brengues J, Coz J, 1973.; Quelques aspects fondamentaux de la biologie d’Anopheles gambiae Giles (Sp.A) et d’Anopheles funestus Giles, en zone de savane humide d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Cah ORSTOM Ser Entomol Med Parasitol 11 : 107–126. [Google Scholar]
  276. Coene J, 1993. Malaria in urban and rural Kinshasa: the entomological input. Med Vet Entomol 7 : 127–137. [Google Scholar]
  277. Chiang GL, Loong KP, Chan ST, Eng KL, Yap HH, 1991. Capture-recapture studies with Anopheles maculatus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) the vector of malaria in peninsular Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 22 : 643–647. [Google Scholar]
  278. Chuang CH, 1991. Current status of malaria in Taiwan from 1966 to 1990. Gaoxiong Yi Xue Ke Xue Za Zhi 7 : 233–242. [Google Scholar]
  279. Dash AP, Hazra RK, Mahapatra N, Tripathy HK, 2000. Disappearance of malaria vector Anopheles sundaicus from Chilika Lake area of Orissa State in India. Med Vet Entomol 14 : 445–449. [Google Scholar]
  280. Peters W, Standfast HA, 1960. Studies on the epidemiology of malaria in New Guinea. Part I, Holoendemic malaria - the entomological picture. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 54 : 249–254. [Google Scholar]
  281. Hitchcock JG Jr, 1968. Age composition of a natural population of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae) in Maryland, USA. J Med Entomol 5 : 125–134. [Google Scholar]
  282. Keener GG Jr, 1945. Detailed observations on the life history of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. J Natl Mal Soc 4 : 263–270. [Google Scholar]
  283. Kasap H, 1990. Comparison of experimental infectivity and development of Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles sacharovi and An. superpictus in Turkey. Am J Trop Med Hyg 42 : 111–117. [Google Scholar]
  284. Beier MS, Beier JC, Merdan AA, Sawaf BME, Kadder MA, 1987. Laboratory rearing techniques and adult life table parameters for Anopheles sergentii from Egypt. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 3 : 266–270. [Google Scholar]
  285. Kasap H, Kasap M, Demirhan O, Alptekin D, 1987. Development of Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles superpictus under experimental conditions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 37 : 241–245. [Google Scholar]
  286. Washino RK, Tempelis CH, 1983. Mosquito host blood meal identification: methodology and data analysis. Annu Rev Entomol 28 : 179–201. [Google Scholar]
  287. Beier JC, Killeen GF, Githure JI, 1999. Short report: entomologic inoculation rates and Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 : 109–113. [Google Scholar]
  288. Sachs J, 2002. “Institutions Don’t Rule: Direct Effects of Geography on Per Capita Income. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economics Research. Working Paper.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 04 Feb 2003
  • Accepted : 06 Oct 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error