Volume 70, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


There are contradictory data about whether highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prevents visceral leishmaniasis (VL) relapses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of VL relapses in individuals receiving HAART. Thirty-one patients who received HAART after developing VL were included in a retrospective cohort study. Ten of them received secondary chemoprophylaxis and the rest did not. Eight (38%) patients without secondary chemoprophylaxis showed a VL relapse. None of the seven subjects with VL relapses and 6 of 11 without recurrence ( = 0.038), in whom all scheduled data were available, showed an increase of more than 100 CD4+ cells/mm during the follow-up. Patients with relapse showed higher levels of HIV RNA viral load at their last visit ( = 0.047). The frequency of VL relapses in patients receiving HAART is high. Relapses of VL are observed only in individuals with uncontrolled HIV replication and/or poor immunologic responses.


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  • Received : 09 Apr 2003
  • Accepted : 26 Nov 2003

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