1921
Volume 70, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Forest malaria is a complex but common phenomenon occurring in southeast Asia. We studied its epidemiology through a prospective community-based study in central Vietnam. A total of 585 individuals were followed for two years by active case detection and biannual cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of antibodies to was constantly about 20% across surveys and the incidence rate of clinical episodes of malaria was 0.11/person-year. Multivariate analysis showed that regular forest activity was the main risk factor for clinical malaria and malaria infections. Untreated bed nets had a significant protective effect (60%), except for people regularly sleeping in the forest. The population-attributable fraction for regular forest activity was estimated to be 53%. Our results confirm the major role played by forest activity on the malaria burden in this area and provide the basis for targeting control activities to forest workers. New interventions based on insecticide-treated materials need to be urgently evaluated.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.70.110
2004-02-01
2017-11-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/70/2/0700110.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.70.110&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Phan VT, Tuy TQ, Hung LX, Ngo LV, 1998. Epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Vietnam 1992–1997. http://www.ec-malaria.org/mcis/book1_21.htm.
  2. Schuftan C, 2000. A story to be shared: the successful fight against malaria in Vietnam. WHO WPRO and the global Roll Back Malaria Program. http://www.afronets.org
  3. Tuy TC, 1998. Malaria situation in Vietnam January–June 1998. http://www.ec-malaria.org/mcis/book1_21.htm.
  4. Verle P, Tuy TC, Lieu TT, Kongs A, Coosemans M, 1998. New challenges for malaria control in northern Vietnam. Res Rev Parasitol 58 : 169–174.
  5. Cong LD, 1999. Results of malaria control in Vietnam 1992–1997 & malaria control plan for 1998–2000. http://www.ec-malaria.org/mcsi/lib.nsf/issue1
  6. Phan VT, 1998. Epidémiologie du Paludisme et Lutte Antipaludique au Vietnam. Hanoi: Editions Medicales Vietnam.
  7. Van Bortel W, Harbach RE, Trung HD, Roelants P, Backeljau T, Coosemans M, 2001. Confirmation of Anopheles varuna in vietnam, previously misidentified and mistargeted as the malaria vector Anopheles minimus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65 : 729–732.
  8. Manguin S, Kengne P, Sonnier L, Harbach RE, Baimai V, Trung HD, Coosemans M, 2002. SCAR markers and multiplex PCR-based identification of isomorphic species in the Anopheles dirus complex in southeast Asia. Med Vet Entomol 16 : 46–54.
  9. Coosemans M, 2001. Identification and Characterization of Malaria Vectors in Southeast Asia: A Prerequisite for Appropriate Vector Control. Final report (2001). Antwerp: International Cooperation with Developing Countries (INCO-DC).
  10. Hung LQ, De Vries PJ, Giao PT, Nam NV, Binh TQ, Chong MT, Quoc NTTA, Thanh T.N, Hung LN, Kager PA, 2002. Control of malaria: a successful experience from Vietnam. Bull World Health Organ 80 : 660–666.
  11. Demedts P, Wery M, 1985. Indirect immunofluorescence using differentiating antigens in detection of imported malaria. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 65 (Suppl 2): 89–96.
  12. Zeger SL, Liang KY, 1986. Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes. Biometrics 42 : 121–130.
  13. Smith T, Schellenberg JA, Hayes R, 1994. Attributable fraction estimates and case definitions for malaria in endemic areas. Stat Med 13 : 2345–2358.
  14. Forest Malaria in Southeast Asia, 1991. Proceedings of an Informal Consultative Meeting WHO/MRC. Sharma VP, Kondrashin AV, eds. New Delhi.
  15. Kondrashin AV, Jung RK, Akiyama J, 1991. Ecological aspects of forest malaria in Southeast Asia. Sharma VP, Kondrashin AV, eds. Forest Malaria in Southeast Asia. New Delhi: 1–28.
  16. Armrattana A, Kaewkantha S, Kamboonruang C, Webber RH, 1993. Villager activities and malaria illness in a Thai-Myanmar border area. Trans R SocTrop Med Hyg 87 : 340–348.
  17. Butraporn P, Sornmani S, Hungsapruek T, 1986. Social, behavioural, housing factors and their interactive effects associated with malaria occurrence in east Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 17 : 386–392.
  18. Lansang MA, Belizario VY, Bustos MD, Saul A, Aguirre A, 1997. Risk factors for infection with malaria in a low endemic community in Bataan, the Philippines. Acta Trop 63 : 257–265.
  19. Luxemburger C, Thwai KL, White NJ, Webster HK, Kyle DE, Maelankirri L, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Nosten F, 1996. The epidemiology of malaria in a Karen population on the western border of Thailand. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 : 105–111.
  20. Rahman WA, Adanan CR, Abu-Hassan A, 1998. A study on some aspects of the epidemiology of malaria in an endemic district in northern Peninsular Malaysia near Thailand border. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 29 : 537–540.
  21. Singhasivanon P, Thimasarn K, Yimsamran S, Linthicum K, Nualchawee K, Dawreang D, Kongrod S, Premmanisakul N, Maneeboonyang W, Salazar N, 1999. Malaria in tree crop plantations in south-eastern and western provinces of Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 30 : 399–404.
  22. Somboon P, Aramrattana A, Lines J, Webber R, 1998. Entomological and epidemiological investigations of malaria transmission in relation to population movements in forest areas of north-west Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 29 : 3–9.
  23. Alonso PL, Lindsay SW, Armstrong JR, Conteh M, Hill AG, David PH, Fegan G, de-Francisco A, Hall AJ, Shenton FC, Cham K, Greenwood BM, 1991. The effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on mortality of Gambian children. Lancet 337 : 1499–1502.
  24. D’Alessandro U, Olaleye BO, McGuire W, Langerock P, Bennett S, Aikins MK, Thomson MC, Cham MK, Cham BA, Greenwood BM, 1995. Mortality and morbidity from malaria in Gambian children after introduction of an impregnated bednet programme. Lancet 345 : 479–483.
  25. Nevill CG, Some ES, Mung’ala VO, Mutemi W, New L, Marsh K, Lengeler C, Snow RW, 1996. Insecticide-treated bednets reduce mortality and severe morbidity from malaria among children on the Kenyan coast. Trop Med Int Health 1 : 139–146.
  26. Clarke SE, Bogh C, Brown RC, Pinder M, Walraven GE, Lindsay SW, 2001. Do untreated bednets protect against malaria? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 : 457–462.
  27. Genton B, Hii J, Al-Yaman F, Paru R, Beck H-P, Ginney M, Dagoro H, Lewis D, Alpers MP, 1994. The use of untreated bednets and malaria infection, morbidity and immunity. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 88 : 263–270.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.70.110
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.70.110
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 17 Mar 2003
  • Accepted : 29 May 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error