Volume 69, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


We used conventional and spatial analytical tools to characterize patterns of transmission during a community-wide outbreak of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2000. A comprehensive household-level mosquito vector survey and interview was conducted to obtain data on mosquito species and breeding as well as illness consistent with dengue. Clusters of dengue illnesses and high-density vector populations were observed in a distinct sector of the city. Dengue clusters are less identifiable in areas further away from major hospitals, suggesting that proximity to hospitals determines whether cases of dengue are diagnosed. Focusing on those areas relatively close to hospitals, we found a spatial association between dengue clusters and vector populations. Households reporting a recent dengue illness were more likely to have larvae present in the home when compared with households not reporting cases. Households reporting a recent dengue illness were also more likely to have a neighbor with present in the home. In contrast, the presence of within the premises as well as the homes of neighbors (within 50 meters) was not associated with dengue illness. Given that the breeding habitats for are somewhat distinct from those of the findings of this study have implications for control of dengue transmission in this urban setting where much of the focus has been on indoor mosquito breeding and transmission. Public health officials may find the disease-environment map useful for planning targeted interventions because it displays areas where transmission is most intense.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Rahman M, Rahman K, Siddique AK, Shoma S, Kamal AHM, Ali KS, Nisaluk A, Breiman RF, 2002. First outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 738–740. [Google Scholar]
  2. Gubler EJ, Suharyano W, Tan R, Abidin M, Sie A, 1981. Viraemia in patients with naturally acquired dengue infection. Bull World Health Organ 59: 623–630. [Google Scholar]
  3. Gubler DJ, 1988. Dengue. Monath TP, ed. The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 223–260.
  4. Ishak H, Miyagi I, Toma T, Kamimura K, 1997. Breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in villages of Barru, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28 : 844–850. [Google Scholar]
  5. Yadav RS, Sharma VP, Chand SK, 1997. Mosquito breeding and resting in treeholes in a forest ecosystem in Orissa. Indian J Malariol 34: 8–16. [Google Scholar]
  6. Knudsen AB, 1995. Global distribution and continuing spread of Aedes albopictus. Parassitologia 37: 91–97. [Google Scholar]
  7. Nasiruddin M, 1952. Mosquitoes breeding in tree holes and bamboo stumps in Dacca (East Pakistan). Pakistan J Health 2 : 110–112. [Google Scholar]
  8. Khan AR, 1980. Studies on the breeding habits and seasonal prevalence of larval population of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Dacca City. Bangladesh Med Res Bull 6: 48. [Google Scholar]
  9. Ahmed TU, Joshi GP, Ahmed RU, 1990. Container habitat mosquitoes of Bangladesh. J Zool 5 : 7–16. [Google Scholar]
  10. Su MD, Chang NT, 1994. Framework for application of geographic information system to the monitoring of dengue vectors. Kao Hsiung I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Tsa Chih 10 : S94–S101. [Google Scholar]
  11. Jacquez GM, 2000. Spatial science in epidemiology: nascent science or a failure of GIS. J Geograph Syst 2 : 91–97. [Google Scholar]
  12. Cliff AD, Haggett P, 1996. The impact of GIS on epidemiological mapping and modelling. Longley P, Batty M, eds. Spatial Analysis: Modelling in a GIS Environment. Stoke on Trent, United Kingdom: Pearson Professional, Ltd., 321–343.
  13. Mason TJ, 1995. The development of the series of U.S. cancer atlases: implications for future epidemiologic research. Stat Med 14 : 473–479. [Google Scholar]
  14. White AA, 1995. Mapping and geographic display of data. Stat Med 14 : 697–699. [Google Scholar]
  15. White AA, Croner CM, 1992. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Activity in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association. Proceedings of the Government Statistics Section, 84–89.
  16. Croner CM, Pickle LW, Wolf DR, White AA, 1992. A GIS approach to hypothesis generation in epidemiology. Technical papers, ASPRS/ACSM/RT92. Proc GIS Cartography 3 : 275–283. [Google Scholar]
  17. Bertollini R, Martuzzi M, 1999. Disease mapping and public health decision-making: report of a WHO meeting. Am J Public Health 189 : 780. [Google Scholar]
  18. Afsar R, 2000. Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh: Causes, Consequences and Challenges. Dhaka, Bangladesh: The University Press, Limited.
  19. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 2002. Household and Population Data of Statistical Metropolitan Areas, 2001 (enumerated). Statistical Pocketbook. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning. Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
  20. Eastman JR, 1997. Idrisi for Windows: User’s Guide Version 2.0. Worcester, MA: Clark University.
  21. Robinson GM, 1998. Methods and Techniques in Human Geography. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  22. Gatrell AC, Bailey TC, Diggle PJ, Rowlingson BS, 1996. Spatial point pattern and its application in geographical epidemiology. Trans Inst Br Geogr 21: 256–274. [Google Scholar]
  23. Silverman D, 1986. Density Estimation for Statistics and Data Analysis. London: Chapman and Hall.
  24. Bailey TC, Gatrell AC, 1995. Interactive Spatial Data Analysis. London: Longman Scientific & Technical.
  25. Surfer, 1999. Surfer ® 7 User’s Guide: Contouring and 3D Surface Mapping for Scientists and Engineers. Golden, CO: Golden Software, Inc.
  26. Oliver MA, Webster R, 1999. Kriging: a method of interpolation for geographical information systems. Int J Geogr Information Systems 4 : 313–332. [Google Scholar]
  27. Webster R, Oliver MA, Muir KR, Mann JR, 1994. Kriging the local risk of rare disease from a register diagnoses. Geogr Anal 26 : 168–185. [Google Scholar]
  28. Chung YK, Pang FY, 2002. Dengue virus infection rate in field populations of female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Singapore. Trop Med Int Health 7 : 322–330. [Google Scholar]
  29. Choochote W, Tippawangkosol P, Jitpakdi A, Sukontason KL, Pitasawat B, Sukontason K, Jariyapan N, 2001. Polygamy: the possibly significant behavior of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in relation to the efficient transmission of dengue virus. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 32 : 745–748. [Google Scholar]
  30. Hawley WA, 1988. The biology of Aedes albopictus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc (Suppl 1): 1–39. [Google Scholar]
  31. Mayer JD, 2000. Geography, ecology and emerging infectious disease. Soc Sci Med 50 : 937–952. [Google Scholar]
  32. Hay SI, 1997. Remote sensing and disease control: past, present and future. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 : 105–106. [Google Scholar]
  33. Wang CH, Chang NT, Wu HH, Ho CM, 2000. Integrated control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in Liu-Chiu village, Ping-Tung County, Taiwan. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 16 : 93–99. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 02 Dec 2002
  • Accepted : 23 Jul 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error