Volume 69, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Treatment failures to the first- and second-lines antimalarial drugs chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine have increased in the Purworejo district on the island of Java, Indonesia. A molecular epidemiologic study was conducted to determine the frequency distribution of mutant alleles of the genes associated with the resistance among the isolates of from the area. Analyses using a polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism showed that nearly all of the 111 samples carried mutant alleles in genes associated with chloroquine resistance: multi-drug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) 86Y (92%), 1042D (4.5%), and chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) 76T (99.1%). Mutant alleles of the in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene were also high (84.7%), either as 108N and 108T or paired with 59R, and 16V, respectively. Mutant alleles in the dihydropteroate synthase gene were the least common, either as a single 437G mutation (35.3%) or paired with 540E (26.5%). These results are consistent with the antimalarial drug resistance situation in the area and emphasize the need for a proper treatment strategy.


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  • Received : 26 Mar 2003
  • Accepted : 13 Sep 2003

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