Volume 69, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


The epidemiology of canine American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) due to spp. was investigated in Huánuco, Peru to 1) describe the natural course of canine infections and 2) assess the role of domestic dogs as ACL reservoir hosts. Over a three-year period 1,022 dogs were surveyed, with cumulative village prevalence being 26% (range = 0–100%). The incidence of was estimated to be 0.285 dogs/year (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.160–0.410) using cross-sectional data and 0.291 dogs/year (95% CI = 0.195–0.387) using data from 108 dogs that were surveyed prospectively. The recovery rate was estimated to be 0.456 dogs/year (95% CI = 0.050–0.862) and 0.520 dogs/year (95% CI = 0.302–0.738), respectively. Using those findings, the basic reproduction number was estimated to be R ≈ 1.9; if dogs were the principal ACL reservoirs, the mean yearly effort (i.e., coverage or elimination) of a dog control intervention (e.g., collaring, culling, or vaccination) to ensure the elimination of spp. transmission would be as low as 47%.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Davies CR, Reithinger R, Campbell-Lendrum D, Feliciangeli D, Borges R, Rodriguez N, 2000. The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries. Cad Saude Publica. 16 : 925–950. [Google Scholar]
  2. Ashford RW, 1996. Leishmaniasis reservoirs and their significance in control. Clin Dermatol 14 : 523–532. [Google Scholar]
  3. Reithinger R, Davies CR, 1999. Is the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) a reservoir host of American cutaneous leishmaniasis? A critical review of the current evidence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 : 530–541. [Google Scholar]
  4. Pirmez C, Coutinho SG, Marzochi MC, Nunes MP, Grimaldi G, 1988. Canine American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a clinical and immunological study in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis in an endemic area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 38 : 52–58. [Google Scholar]
  5. Marco JD, Padilla AM, Diosque P, Fernandez MM, Malchiodi EL, Basombrio MA, 2001. Force of infection and evolution of lesions of canine tegumentary leishmaniasis in northwestern Argentina. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96 : 649–652. [Google Scholar]
  6. Moreno J, Alvar J, 2002. Canine leishmaniasis: epidemiological risk and experimental models. Trends Parasitol 18 : 399–405. [Google Scholar]
  7. Solano-Gallego L, Llull J, Ramos G, Riera C, Arboix M, Alberola J, Ferrer L, 2000. The Ibizian hound presents a predominantly cellular immune response against natural Leishmania infection. Vet Parasitol 90 : 37–45. [Google Scholar]
  8. Courtenay O, MacDonald DW, Lainson R, Shaw JJ, Dye C, 1994. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis: a comparative serological study of dogs and foxes in Amazon Brazil. Parasitology 109 : 273–279. [Google Scholar]
  9. Courtenay O, Quinnell RJ, Garcez LM, Shaw JJ, Dye C, 2002. Infectiousness in a cohort of Brazilian dogs: why culling fails to control visceral leishmaniasis in areas of high transmission. J Infect Dis 186 : 1314–1320. [Google Scholar]
  10. Reithinger R, Lambson BE, Barker DC, Davies CR, 2000. Use of PCR to detect Leishmania (Viannia) spp. in dog blood and bone marrow. J Clin Microbiol 38 : 748–751. [Google Scholar]
  11. Reithinger R, Canales Espinoza J, Courtenay O, Davies CR, 2003. Evaluation of PCR as a diagnostic mass-screening tool to detect Leishmania (Viannia) spp. in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). J Clin Microbiol 41 : 1486–1493. [Google Scholar]
  12. Reithinger R, Canales Espinoza J, Llanos-Cuentas A, Davies CR, 2003. Domestic dog ownership: a risk factor for human infection with Leishmania (Viannia) spp. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97 : 141–145. [Google Scholar]
  13. Williams B, Dye CM, 1994. Maximum-likelihood for parasitologists. Parasitol Today 10 : 489–493. [Google Scholar]
  14. Quinnell RJ, Courtenay O, Dye C, 1997. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis: transmission rates estimated from a cohort study in Amazon Brazil. Parasitology 115 : 143–156. [Google Scholar]
  15. Woolhouse ME, Dye C, Etard JF, Smith T, Charlwood JD, Garnett GP, Hagan P, Hii JL, Ndhlovu PD, Quinnell RJ, Watts CH, Chandiwana SK, Anderson RM, 1997. Heterogeneities in the transmission of infectious agents: implications for the design of control programs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94 : 338–342. [Google Scholar]
  16. Davies CR, Llanos-Cuentas EA, Pyke SD, Dye C, 1995. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Peruvian Andes: an epidemiological study of infection and immunity. Epidemiol Infect 114 : 297–318. [Google Scholar]
  17. Ramirez JL, Guevara P, 1997. Persistent infections by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 92 : 333–338. [Google Scholar]
  18. Amela C, Mendez I, Torcal JM, Medina G, Pachon I, Canavate C, Alvar J, 1995. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in the Madrid region, Spain. Eur J Epidemiol 11 : 157–161. [Google Scholar]
  19. Zaffaroni E, Rubaudo L, Lanfranchi P, Mignone W, 1999. Epidemiological patterns of canine leishmaniasis [correction of leishmaniosis] in Western Liguria (Italy). Vet Parasitol 81 : 11–19. [Google Scholar]
  20. Dye C, Killick-Kendrick R, Vitutia MM, Walton R, Kellick-Kendrick M, Harith AE, Guy MW, Canavate MC, Hasibeder G. 1992. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis: prevalence, incidence and basic reproduction number calculated from a cross-sectional survey on the island of Gozo, Malta. Parasitology 105 : 35–41. [Google Scholar]
  21. Reithinger R, Coleman PG, Alexander B, Vieira EP, Assis G, Davies CR, 2003. Are insecticide-impregnated dog collars a feasible alternative to culling as a strategy for controlling canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil? Int J Parasitol (in press).

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 01 Jul 2003
  • Accepted : 02 Sep 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error