Volume 69, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


A public health program to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by treatment with nevirapine has been ongoing in Yaounde, Cameroon since January 2000. After 24 months, plasma samples from 119 children born to HIV-1-positive mothers were tested for HIV-1 RNA between six and eight weeks after birth. Thirteen (10.9%) tested positive (95% confidence interval = 5.2–16.7%). Risk factors associated with MTCT in this study were maternal viral load ( < 0.05), low birth weight (χ for trend =8.78, =0.01), and birth during the second half of the year. A high correlation was repeatedly observed between rainfall in a given month and the risk of MTCT of HIV-1 in children born three months later (r = 0.634, < 0.001). Although we cannot rule out other tropical infections related to the rainy season, the role of malaria is highly suspected since the interval of three months we observed between the peaks of rainfall and the rate of transmission is consistent with the life cycle.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Guay LA, Musoke P, Fleming T, Bagenda D, Allen M, Nakabiito C, Sherman J, Bakaki P, Ducar C, Deseyve M, Emel L, Mirochnick M, Fowler MG, Mofenson L, Miotti P, Dransfield K, Bray D, Mmiro F, Jackson JB, 1999. Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda: HIVNET 012 randomised trial. Lancet 354 : 795–802.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Menendez C, Ordi J, Ismail R, Ventura PJ, Aponte JJ, Kahigwa E, Font F, Alonzo PL, 2000. The impact of placental malaria on gestational age and birth weight. J Infect Dis 181 : 1740–1745.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ayisi JG, van Eijk AM, ter Kuile FO, Kolczak MS, Otieno JA, Misore AO, Kager PA, Steketee RW, Nahlen BL, 2003. The effect of dual infection with HIV and malaria on pregnancy outcome in western Kenya. AIDS 17 : 585–594.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Fievet N, Moussa M, Tami G, Maubert B, Cot M, Deloron P, Chaouat G, 2001. Plasmodium falcifarum induces a Th1/Th2 disequilibrium, favoring the Th1-type pathway, in the human placenta. J Infect Dis 183 : 1530–1534.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Soula G, Ndounga M, Foumane V, Ollivier G, Youmba JC, Basco L, Boudin C, Same Ekobo A, Ringwald P, 2000. Bilan de la résistance de Plasmodium falciparum à la chloroquine au Cameroun et alternatives thérapeutiques. Bull Liais Doc OCEAC 33 : 13–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. O’Donovan D, Ariyoshi K, Milligan P, Ota M, Yamuah L, Sarge-Njie R, Whittle H, 2000. Maternal plasma viral RNA levels determine marked differences in mother-to child transmission rates of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in the Gambia. AIDS 14 : 441–448.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 04 Nov 2002
  • Accepted : 01 Jul 2003
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error