Volume 69, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


A population analysis of peridomestic, light-trapped, field specimens of the phlebotomine sand fly was targeted to six locations representing a geographic transect across eastern Brazil. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences established the pattern of genetic variation among the populations. Alignment of a 261-basepair region at the 3′end of cytochrome b identified 30 haplotypes and 21 segregating sites from 78 sand flies. Pairwise comparisons indicated statistically significant population structuring between northern and southern populations, as well as structuring among the southern populations. Prominent spatial clustering was evident for two of the populations in a minimum spanning network of the haplotypes, but sequence divergence was not sufficient to indicate cryptic species.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Young DG, Duncan MA, 1994. Guide to the Identification and Geographic Distribution of Lutzomyia Sand Flies in Mexico, the West Indies, Central and South America (Diptera: Psychodidae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, No. 54. Gainesville, FL; Association Publications, American Entomological Institute.
  2. Uribe S, 1999. The status of the Lutzomyia longipalpis species complex and possible implications for Leishmania transmission. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 94 : 729–734. [Google Scholar]
  3. Arias JR, Monteiro PS, Zicker F, 1996. The reemergence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 2 : 145–146. [Google Scholar]
  4. Franke CR, Staubach C, Ziller M, Schlüter H, 2002. Trends in the temporal and spatial distribution of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil, from 1985 to 1999. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96 : 236–241. [Google Scholar]
  5. Morrison AC, Munstermann, LE, Ferro C, Pardo R, Torres M, 1995. Ecological and genetic studies of Lutzomyia longipalpis in a central Colombian focus of visceral leishmaniasis. Bol Dir Malariol Saneamiento Ambiental 35 (Suppl 1) : 235–248. [Google Scholar]
  6. Mukhopadhyay J, Rangel EF, Ghosh K, Munstermann LE, 1997. Patterns of genetic variability in colonized strains of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and its consequences. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57 : 216–221. [Google Scholar]
  7. Munstermann LE, 1994. Unexpected genetic consequences of colonization and inbreeding: allozyme tracking in Culicidae (Diptera). Ann Entomol Soc Am 87 : 157–164. [Google Scholar]
  8. Secondino NFC, Braga EM, Pimenta PFP, 1999. Colonization of Lutzomyia longipalpis: morphological study and susceptibility to infection by Leishmania spp. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 94 (Suppl II) : 253. [Google Scholar]
  9. Lanzaro GC, Ostrovska K, Herrero MV, Lawyer PG, Warburg A, 1993. Lutzomyia longipalpis is a species complex: genetic divergence and interspecific hybrid sterility among three populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48 : 839–847. [Google Scholar]
  10. Arrivillaga JC, Rangel YN, Oviedo M, Feliciangeli MD, 2000. Correlated morphologic and genetic diversity among Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) collections in Ven-ezuela. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 16 : 171–174. [Google Scholar]
  11. Mutebi J-P, Tripet F, Alexander JB, Lanzaro GC, 2002. Genetic differentiation among populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central and South America. Ann Entomol Soc Am 95 : 740–752. [Google Scholar]
  12. Lampo M, Torgerson D, Márquez LM, Rinaldi M, Garcia CZ, Arab A, 1999. Occurrence of sibling species of Lutzomyia lon-gipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Venezuela: first evidence from reproductively isolated sympatric populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 : 1004–1009. [Google Scholar]
  13. Mangabeira O, 1969. Classification and biology of the Phleboto-mus of Ceará. Rev Bras Malariol Doenças Trop 21 : 3–26. [Google Scholar]
  14. Ward RD, Ribeiro AL, Ready PD, Murtagh A, 1983. Reproductive isolation between different forms of Lutzomyia longipal-pis (Lutz & Neiva), (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vector of Leishmania donovani chagasi Cunha & Chagas and its significance to kala-azar distribution in South America. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 78 : 269–280. [Google Scholar]
  15. Mukhopadhyay J, Ghosh K, Azevedo ACR, Rangel EF, Mun-stermann LE, 1998. Genetic polymorphism of morphological and biochemical characters in a Natal, Brazil, population of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae). J Am Mosq Control Assoc 14 : 277–282. [Google Scholar]
  16. Mutebi JP, Alexander B, Sherlock I, Wellington J, Souza AA, Shaw J, Rangel EF, Lanzaro GC, 1999. Breeding structure of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) in Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 : 149–157. [Google Scholar]
  17. Azevedo ACR, Monteiro FA, Cabello PH, de Souza NA, Rosa-Freitas MG, Rangel EF, 2000. Studies on populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 95 : 305–322. [Google Scholar]
  18. Mukhopadhyay J., Ghosh K, Rangel EF, Munstermann LE, 1998. Genetic variability in biochemical characters of Brazilian field populations of the Leishmania vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 893–901. [Google Scholar]
  19. Yin H, Mutebi JP, Marriott S, Lanzaro GC, 1999. Metaphase karyotypes and G-banding in sand flies of the Lutzomyia lon-gipalpis complex. Med Vet Entomol 13 : 72–77. [Google Scholar]
  20. Soto SIU, Lehmann T, Rowton ED, Velez ID, Porter CH, 2001. Speciation and population structure in the morphospecies Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) as derived from the mitochondrial ND4 gene. Mol Phylogenet Evol 18 : 84–93. [Google Scholar]
  21. Oliveira SG, Bottecchia M, Bauzer LGSR, Souza NA, Ward RD, Kyriacou CP, Peixoto AA, 2001. Courtship song genes and speciation in sand flies. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96 : 403–405. [Google Scholar]
  22. Bauzer LGSR, Gesto JSM, Souza NA, Ward RD, Hamilton JGC, Kyriacou CP, Peixoto AA, 2002. Molecular divergence in the period gene between two putative sympatric species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex. Mol Biol Evol 19 : 1624–1627. [Google Scholar]
  23. Bauzer LGSR, Souza NA, Ward RD, Kyriacou CP, Peixoto AA, 2002. The period gene and genetic differentiation between three Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Insect Mol Biol 11 : 315–324. [Google Scholar]
  24. Arrivillaga JC, Norris DE, Feliciangeli MD, Lanzaro GC, 2002. Phylogeography of the neotropical sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis inferred from mitochondiral DNA sequences. Infect Genet Evol 2 : 83–95. [Google Scholar]
  25. Koekemoer LL, Lochouarn L, Hunt RH, Coetzee M, 1999. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for identification of four members of the Anopheles funestus Diptera: Culicidae group. J Med Entomol 36 : 125–130. [Google Scholar]
  26. Norris DE, Klompen JSH, Keirans JE, Lane RS, Piesman J, Black WCIV, 1997. Taxonomic status of Ixodes neotomae and I. spinipalpis (Acari: Ixodidae) based on mitochondrial DNA evidence. J Med Entomol 34 : 696–703. [Google Scholar]
  27. Brown NM, 1985. The mitochondrial genome of animals. MacIntyre R, ed. Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. New York, NY: Plenum Publishing, 95–138.
  28. Esposti MD, DeVries S, Crimi M, Ghelli A, Patarnello T, Meyer A, 1993. Mitochondrial cytochrome b: evolution and structure of the protein. Biochim Biophys Acta 1143 : 243–271. [Google Scholar]
  29. Ishikawa EAY, Ready PD, de Souza AA, Day JC, Rangel EF, Davies CR, Shaw JJ, 1999. A mitochondrial DNA phylogeny indicates close relationships between populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from the rain-forest regions of Amazonia and northeast Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 94 : 339–345. [Google Scholar]
  30. Hodgkinson VH, Birungi J, Haghpanah M, Joshi S, Munstermann LE, 2002. Rapid identification of mitochondrial cytochrome b haplotypes by single strand conformation polymorphism in Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) populations. J Med Entomol 39: 689–694. [Google Scholar]
  31. Bender W, Spierer P, Hogness DS, 1983. Chromosomal walking and jumping to isolate DNA from the Ace and rosy loci and the bithorax complex in Drosophila melanogaster. J Mol Biol 168 : 17–33. [Google Scholar]
  32. Beard CB, Hamm DM, Collins FH, 1993. The mitochondrial genome of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae: DNA sequence, genome organization, and comparisons with mitochondrial sequences of other insects. Insect Mol Biol 2 : 103–124. [Google Scholar]
  33. Gilbert DG, 1993. SeqApp Version 1.9. A Biosequence Editor and Analysis Application. Bloomington, IN: Biocomputing Office, Biology Department, Indiana University.
  34. Maddison WP, Maddison DR, 1992, 1999. MacClade: Analysis of Phylogeny and Character Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  35. Nei M, 1987. Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. New York: Columbia University Press.
  36. Hudson RR, Boos DD, Kaplan NL, 1992. A statistical test for detecting geographic subdivision. Mol Biol Evol 9 : 138–151. [Google Scholar]
  37. Schneider S, Kueffer JM, Roessli D, Excoffier L, 1997. Arlequin, Version 1.1. A Software for Population Genetic Data Analysis. Geneva, Switzerland: Genetics and Biometry Laboratory, University of Geneva.
  38. Kimura M, 1980. A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol 16 : 111–120. [Google Scholar]
  39. Excoffier L, Smouse PE, Quattro JM, 1992. Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics 131 : 479–491. [Google Scholar]
  40. Avise JC, Ball RM, Arnold J, 1988. Current versus historical population sizes in vertebrate species with high gene flow: a comparison based on mitochondrial DNA polymorphism and inbreeding theory for neutral mutations. Mol Biol Evol 5 : 331–344. [Google Scholar]
  41. Ready PD, Day JC, Souza AA, Rangel EF, Davies CR, 1997. Mitochondrial DNA characterization of populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae) incriminated in the peridomestic and sylvatic transmission of Leishmania species in Brazil. Bull Entomol Res 87 : 187–195. [Google Scholar]
  42. Ready PD, de Souza AA, Rebelo JMM, Day JC, Silveira FT, Campbell-Lendrum D, Davies CR, Costa JML, 1998. Phylogenetic species and domesticity of Lutzomyia whitmani at the south-east boundary of Amazonian Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 : 159–160. [Google Scholar]
  43. Templeton AR, 1998. Nested clade analyses of phylogeographic data: testing hypotheses about gene flow and population history. Mol Ecol 7 : 381–397. [Google Scholar]
  44. Templeton AR, Routman E, Phillips CA, 1995. Separating population structure from population history: a cladistic analysis of the geographical distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. Genetics 140 : 767–782. [Google Scholar]
  45. Avise JC, Arnold J, Ball RM, Bermingham E, Lamb T, Neigel JE, Reeb CA, Saunders NC, 1987. Intraspecific phylogeography: the mitochondrial DNA bridge between population genetics and systematics. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 18 : 489–522. [Google Scholar]
  46. Bigarella JJ, Andrade-Lima D, 1982. Paleoenvironmental changes in Brazil. Prance GT, ed. Biological Diversification in the Tropics. New York: Columbia University Press, 27–40.
  47. Whitmore TC, Prance GT, 1987. Biogeography and Quaternary History in Tropical America. Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press.
  48. Prous A, Fogaça E, 1999. Archaeology of the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary in Brazil. Quarternary Int 53–54 : 21–41. [Google Scholar]
  49. Andrade-Lima D, 1982. Present-day forest refuges in Northeastern Brazil. GT Prance, ed. Biological Diversification in the Tropics. New York: Columbia University Press, 245–251.
  50. Colinvaux PA, Irion G, Räsänen ME, Bush MB, Nunes de Mello JAS, 2001. A paradigm to be discarded: geological and paleoecological data falsify the HAFFER & PRANCE refuge hypothesis of Amazonian speciation. Amazoniana 16 : 609–646. [Google Scholar]
  51. Haffer J, Prance GT, 2001. Climatic forcing of evolution in Amazonia during the Cenozoic: on the refuge theory of biotic differentiation. Amazoniana 16 : 579–607. [Google Scholar]
  52. Avise JC, Neigel JE, Arnold J, 1984. Demographic influences on mitochondrial DNA lineage survivorship in animal populations. J Mol Evol 20 : 99–105. [Google Scholar]
  53. Ledru P, 1993. Late quaternary environmental and climatic changes in central Brazil. Quarternary Res 39 : 90–98. [Google Scholar]
  54. Prance GT, ed. 1982. Biological Diversification in the Tropics. New York: Columbia University Press.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 Jan 2003
  • Accepted : 18 Jul 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error