Volume 69, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


To ascertain hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection rates for Vietnam, we surveyed HBV markers in two districts of Thanh Hoa province. We randomly selected 536 infants (9– ≤ 18 months old), 228 children (4 to ≤ 6 years old), 219 adolescents (14 to ≤ 16 years old), and 596 adults (25 to ≤ 40 years old). On questioning, none of those surveyed had received vaccine against HBV. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and total HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) were measured in all specimens, and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) in those positive for HBsAg, and HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs) were measured in all others. Current infection (HBsAg+) rates were infants = 12.5%, children = 18.4%, adolescents = 20.5%, and adults = 18.8%. Current or previous infection (HBsAg+, anti-HBc+, or anti-HBs+) increased with age (infants = 19.6%, children = 36.4%, adolescents = 55.3%, adults = 79.2%). Rates of HBeAg among those HBsAg+ were infants = 85.1%, children = 88.1%, adolescents = 71.1%, and adults = 30.4%. The epidemiology of HBV in Vietnam resembles that of many southeast Asian nations before introduction of vaccine. Immunization of newborns will have enormous impact on HBV-related morbidity and mortality there.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Wittet S, 2000. Introducing GAVI and the Global Fund for Children’s Vaccines. Vaccine 19 : 385–386. [Google Scholar]
  2. Beasley RP, Hwang LY, Lin CC, Stevens CE, Wang KY, Sun TS, Hsieh FJ, Szmuness W, 1981. Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) efficacy in the interruption of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus carrier state. Initial report of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2 : 388–393. [Google Scholar]
  3. Maynard JE, Kane MA, Hadler SC, 1989. Global control of hepatitis B through vaccination: role of hepatitis B vaccine in the Expanded Programme on Immunization. Rev Infect Dis 11 (Suppl 3): 574–578. [Google Scholar]
  4. Yao JL, 1996. Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection and vaccination in China. Gut 38 : 37–38. [Google Scholar]
  5. Poovorawan Y, Sanpavat S, Pongpunglert W, Chumdermpadetsuk S, Sentrakul P, Vandepapeliere P, Safary A, 1992. Long term efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in infants born to hepatitis B e antigen-positive mothers. Pediatr Infect Dis J 11 : 816–821. [Google Scholar]
  6. Andre FE, Zuckerman AJ, 1994. Review: protective efficacy of hepatitis B vaccines in neonates. J Med Virol 44 : 144–151. [Google Scholar]
  7. Huang K, Lin S, 2000. Nationwide vaccination: a success story in Taiwan. Vaccine 18 : 35–38. [Google Scholar]
  8. Kao JH, Hsu HM, Shau WY, Chang MH, Chen DS, 2001. Universal hepatitis B vaccination and the decreased mortality from fulminant hepatitis in infants in Taiwan. J Pediatr 139 : 349–352. [Google Scholar]
  9. Hsu HY, Chang MH, Chen DS, Lee CY, Sung JL, 1986. Baseline seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in children in Taipei, 1984: a study just before mass hepatitis B vaccination program in Taiwan. J Med Virol 18 : 301–307. [Google Scholar]
  10. Hsu HM, Chen DS, Chuang CH, Lu JC, Jwo DM, Lee CC, Lu HC, Cheng SH, Wang YF, Wang CY, Lo KJ, Shih CJ, Sung JL, 1988. Efficacy of a mass hepatitis B vaccination program in Taiwan. Studies on 3,464 infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-carrier mothers. JAMA 260 : 2231–2235. [Google Scholar]
  11. Tran VB, Buu M, Nguyen TM, Morris GE, 1993. Hepatitis B in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 : 262. [Google Scholar]
  12. Nakata S, Song P, Duc DD, Nguyen XQ, Murata K, Tsuda F, Okamoto H, 1994. Hepatitis C and B virus infections in populations at low or high risk in Ho Chi Minh and Hanoi, Vietnam. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 9 : 416–419. [Google Scholar]
  13. Katelaris PH, Robertson G, Bradbury R, Tippett G, Hoa DQ, Ngu MC, 1995. Seroprevalence of hepatitis viruses in children in rural Viet Nam. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89 : 487. [Google Scholar]
  14. Lee PI, Lee CY, Huang LM, Chang MH, 1995. Long-term efficacy of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and risk of natural infection in infants born to mothers with hepatitis B e antigen. J Pediatr 126 : 716–721. [Google Scholar]
  15. McMahon BJ, Alward WL, Hall DB, Heyward WL, Bender TR, Francis DP, Maynard JE, 1985. Acute hepatitis B virus infection: relation of age to the clinical expression of disease and subsequent development of the carrier state. J Infect Dis 151 : 599–603. [Google Scholar]
  16. Roumeliotou-Karayannis A, Tassopoulos N, Richardson SC, Kalafatas P, Papaevangelou G, 1985. How often does chronic liver disease follow acute hepatitis B in adults? Infection 13 : 174–176. [Google Scholar]
  17. Edmunds WJ, Medley GF, Nokes DJ, Hall AJ, Whittle HC, 1993. The influence of age on the development of the hepatitis B carrier state. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 253 : 197–201. [Google Scholar]
  18. Hyams KC, 1995. Risks of chronicity following acute hepatitis B virus infection: a review. Clin Infect Dis 20 : 992–1000. [Google Scholar]
  19. Milne A, Allwood GK, Moyes CD, Pearce NE, Lucas CR, 1985. Prevalence of hepatitis B infections in a multiracial New Zealand community. N Z Med J 98 : 529–532. [Google Scholar]
  20. Franks AL, Berg CJ, Kane MA, Browne BB, Sikes RK, Elsea WR, Burton AH, 1989. Hepatitis B virus infection among children born in the United States to Southeast Asian refugees. N Engl J Med 321 : 1301–1305. [Google Scholar]
  21. Alter MJ, Hadler SC, Margolis HS, Alexander WJ, Hu PY, Judson FN, Mares A, Miller JK, Moyer LA, 1990. The changing epidemiology of hepatitis B in the United States. Need for alternative vaccination strategies. JAMA 263 : 1218–1222. [Google Scholar]
  22. Goh KT, 1997. Prevention and control of hepatitis B virus infection in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore 26 : 671–681. [Google Scholar]
  23. Centers for Disease Control, 1991. Hepatitis B virus: a comprehensive strategy for eliminating transmission in the United States through universal childhood vaccination. Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 40 : 1–25. [Google Scholar]
  24. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, 1992. Universal hepatitis B immunization. Pediatrics 89 : 795–800. [Google Scholar]
  25. World Health Organization, 1992. Expanded program on immunization. Global Advisory Group—Part 1. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 67 : 11–15. [Google Scholar]
  26. Ghendon Y, 1987. Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus in high-incidence countries. J Virol Methods 17 : 69–79. [Google Scholar]
  27. Gust ID, 1996. Epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in the Western Pacific and South East Asia. Gut 38 : 18–23. [Google Scholar]
  28. Mahoney FJ, Kane M, 1999. Hepatitis B vaccine. Plotkin, SA, Orenstein, W, eds. Vaccines. Third edition. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 158–181.
  29. Chu CM, Sheen IS, Lin SM, Liaw YF, 1993. Sex difference in chronic hepatitis B virus infection: studies of serum HBeAg and alanine aminotransferase levels in 10,431 asymptomatic Chinese HBsAg carriers. Clin Infect Dis 16 : 709–713. [Google Scholar]
  30. Beasley RP, Trepo C, Stevens CE, Szmuness W, 1977. The e antigen and vertical transmission of hepatitis B surface antigen. Am J Epidemiol 105 : 94–98. [Google Scholar]
  31. Pongpipat D, Suvatte V, Assateerawatts A, 1985. Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus in Thailand. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 3 : 191–193. [Google Scholar]
  32. Lo KJ, Tsai YT, Lee SD, Wu TC, Wang JY, Chen GH, Yeh CL, Chiang BN, Yeh SH, Goudeau A, Coursaget P, Tong MJ, 1985. Immunoprophylaxis of infection with hepatitis B virus in infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive carrier mothers. J Infect Dis 152 : 817–822. [Google Scholar]
  33. Smego RA Jr, Halsey NA, 1987. The case for routine hepatitis B immunization in infancy for populations at increased risk. Pediatr Infect Dis J 6 : 11–19. [Google Scholar]
  34. http://www.vaccinealliance.org/press/press_release3105.html.
  35. Goudeau A, Lo KJ, Coursaget P, Tong MJ, Yeh CL, Tsai YT, Lee JK, Wu TC, Yeh SH, Lee SD, 1983. Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in children born to HBsAg positive/HBeAg positive mothers. Preliminary results of active and passive-active immunization. Dev Biol Stand 54 : 399–404. [Google Scholar]
  36. Ruff TA, Gertig DM, Otto BF, Gust ID, Sutanto A, Soewarso TI, Kandun N, Marschner IC, Maynard JE, 1995. Lombok Hepatitis B Model Immunization Project: toward universal infant hepatitis B immunization in Indonesia. J Infect Dis 171 : 290–296. [Google Scholar]
  37. Beasley RP, Hwang LY, 1984. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. Vyas GN, Dienstag JL, Hoofnagle JH, eds. Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. New York: Gruen and Stratton, 209–224.
  38. Margolis HS, Coleman PJ, Brown RE, Mast EE, Sheingold SH, Arevalo JA, 1995. Prevention of hepatitis B virus transmission by immunization. An economic analysis of current recommendations. JAMA 274 : 1201–1208. [Google Scholar]
  39. Harpaz R, McMahon BJ, Margolis HS, Shapiro CN, Havron D, Carpenter G, Bulkow LR, Wainwright RB, 2000. Elimination of new chronic hepatitis B virus infections: results of the Alaska immunization program. J Infect Dis 181 : 413–418. [Google Scholar]
  40. Mahoney FJ, Woodruff BA, Erben JJ, Coleman PJ, Reid EC, Schatz GC, Kane MA, 1993. Effect of a hepatitis B vaccination program on the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. J Infect Dis 167 : 203–207. [Google Scholar]
  41. Wilson N, Ruff TA, Rana BJ, Leydon J, Locarnini S, 2000. The effectiveness of the infant hepatitis B immunisation program in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and Vanuatu. Vaccine 18 : 3059–3066. [Google Scholar]
  42. Yao GB, 1996. Importance of perinatal versus horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in China. Gut 38 : 39–42. [Google Scholar]
  43. Chunsuttiwat S, Biggs BA, Maynard J, Thamapalo S, Laoboripat S, Bovornsin S, Charanasri U, Pinyowiwat W, Kunasol P, 1997. Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into the expanded programme on immunization in Chonburi and Chiangmai provinces, Thailand. Vaccine 15 : 769–774. [Google Scholar]
  44. Al-Faleh FZ, Al-Jeffri M, Ramia S, Al-Rashed R, Arif M, Rezeig M, Al-Toraif I, Bakhsh M, Mishkkhas A, Makki O, Al-Freihi H, Mirdad S, AlJuma A, Yasin T, Al-Swailem A, Ayoola A, 1999. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in Saudi children 8 years after a mass hepatitis B vaccination programme. J Infect 38 : 167–170. [Google Scholar]
  45. Viviani S, Jack A, Hall AJ, Maine N, Mendy M, Montesano R,Whittle HC, 1999. Hepatitis B vaccination in infancy in The Gambia: protection against carriage at 9 years of age. Vaccine 17 : 2946–2950. [Google Scholar]
  46. Tsen YJ, Chang MH, Hsu HY, Lee CY, Sung JL,Chen DS, 1991. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in children in Taipei, 1989: five years after a mass hepatitis B vaccination program. J Med Virol 34 : 96–99. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 17 Sep 2002
  • Accepted : 07 May 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error